DMSO
Natural Remedies

DMSO Health Benefits, Dosage and Application Tips

DMSO Application Tips
Posted by Joel Rosenblum (Senegal) on 10/26/2021 15 posts
5 out of 5 stars

Regarding diluting dmso for topical application, usually 50% dilution is good but everyone is different so just experiment.

To take dmso by mouth you can either put it in large cellulose capsules 1mL at a time and swallow them before they melt (in a minute), or you can just dilute it in enough water. 1mL in a liter of water is hard to taste. But you might want to use more, so in that case capsules and topical.

To avoid smelling bad, take extra magnesium and drink ( raw goat preferably) milk. Lots more info from the yummy.doctor website or in the book DMSO:Nature's Healer.

Skin Cancer
Posted by G. (Douglasville Ga.) on 10/11/2021
5 out of 5 stars

I used DMSO on a skin cancer spot, and I added a lot of vitamin C, and it cured the spot. Vitamin C kills viruses, and the DMSO helped it to absorb since it is an industrial solvent. It goes to the bottom, and a little more. Antiviral herbs and DMSO would work, too, maybe.


DMSO Application Tips
Posted by Katzie (Calgary ) on 07/26/2021
5 out of 5 stars

I do not subscribe to the dilute above the waist and not below stuff. I use DMSO on my knees regularly and always put on a thin layer of castor oil first. This helps with protecting my skin AND from half the DMSO being soaked up by the skin in my hand on the way to my knees! DMSO is a solvent and it wants IN! The one time I forgot the castor oil and used the stuff straight, and the skin on my kneecaps was red and scaly. I threw every healing oil I have at it, and the stuff that worked overnight was av-ee-no lotion. Please so not use DMSO straight unless you're diluting, and that just seems its more trouble than it's worth.

Tip: do take a moment and rinse the stuff off your hands after or they'll look pickled later for a little while. I don't like this sensation so I always wash it off.

Best of healing to you!


DMSO Application Tips
Posted by Ronald (New Hampshire) on 09/02/2021

Try going to stewpeters.tv Lots of good stuff there for survival.


Internal Use
Posted by Joseph (Stockton, CA) on 06/30/2021 71 posts

I am 79yrs old, been around for awhile and I found this site not long ago and I have read many comments, am using some of there natural things that have been posted, perhaps people will try things that I have posted. Now the real reason I am replying to this posting is your DMSO comment and you feeling that EC should debate you, well that is not the business they are in, AFTERALL who are you? You should be so glad that the Staff here posted your comment, I never would have. I used DMSO over 55 yrs ago, big deal. Be thankful your comment was accepted, hoping you go after Big PHARMA now. I love this site!


Tooth Abscess
Posted by Dibro (North MS) on 04/25/2021
5 out of 5 stars

Tooth abscess /swollen gums:

  • Mix about a teaspoon of DMSO with a pinch or two of table salt.
  • Dissolve the solution/apply with finger on top of the abscess and all around the affected area. Spit.
  • Do not rinse or eat for at least an hour.

Bedtime application works best. bye bye root canal $$$$

Also ground sage and water make a great oral rinse for fast toothache relief.

But for infection & abscess, the DMSO and table salt mix applied topically can't be beat!


Arthritis, Cancer
Posted by Lilu (Los Angeles) on 03/27/2022

They said the same thing about my dad, nearly 2 years ago & they were rushing us to make a decision about starting treatment. We decided to leave alone that 'Huge Tumor' (which would only give him no more than 4-7 months' time) that they were so concerned about & guess what? once the regular enlarged prostate issues subsided (with a little help from healthy diet & natural remedies such as Frankincense ('Boswellia') it turned out to be NOTHING after all. It's a long story, can't get into it now but suffice it to say 1- The details alone would prove how much safer we are to leave some 'cancers' alone. And 2- Big-pharma/Medical Establishment makes lots of intentional & unintentional mistakes. ***One of the doctors even said he was gonna bleed to death unless he was rushed to surgery right then & there during one of our routine visits. You should've seen the scene he raised & the drama queen he turned into just because I questioned him a few good questions. Again, that was TWO years ago. ;) ***

Please, listen to this doctor. You will understand everything. Also, you'll learn about DMSO & all other natural solutions. On his youtube channel he's got 10000 of videos of him speaking to other holistic chiropractors on every health related issue.

BTW He's in Southern California.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tq3X27c1bTc&t=1825s


Nebulizing DMSO
Posted by ORH (TEN MILE, TN) on 04/21/2021

ClaudiO, ORH here, and I first learned of DMSO in 1965 when I worked for CZ in St Francisville, La. The CZ pulp mill in Bogalusa, La was where C Z make their DMSO from the mill's black liquor. Their DMSO Supervisor came over to help me start up our tall oil plant.

He related two stories that I have posted over the years and will post here again.

He said none of his employees ever got a cold, nor the flu while working in the plant. Also, he said DMSO will instantly heal a skin burn. Dr. Jacob in Ore. did all CZ's research and lived to be 93 and drank DMSO every day. Read his book. I still buy all my DMSO from his Lab.

You are right about DMSO reacting with plastic as I ruined my Tractor Driver's plastic measuring beaker with 100 % DMSO. A glass nebulizer would work. Dr. Jacobs says to use 75% below your waist and 50% above your waist. The employees had to breathe the DMSO vapors but I would have no clue what concentration to use in a nebulizer. I would go very low to start.

After I crushed my T 12, I use lineament and DMSO every morning on my hips. Dr. Jacobs testified before Senator Kennedy's committee in his investigation into DMSO. After that, Dr. Jacobs took a low profile as Big Pharma came after him. Would tell you much more, but this tale would not be posted. Error to the save side on the nebulizing and keep us posted.

====ORH====


Natural Antibiotic
Posted by Enid (California) on 11/19/2016
5 out of 5 stars

Dmso works great when paired with coconut oil which is a natural antibiotic


Skin Growths
Posted by Gary (Obion, Tn) on 08/14/2015
5 out of 5 stars

I have successfully used DMSO for two severe skin growths--one was more than 7 years old--ugly right under my right eye. Gone is just 3 days--but about 50 consecutive treatments in that short time-that also included pricking the sore to initiate bleeding and then alternating hydrogen peroxide with DMSO and then alternating iodine with DMSO.

The sore was really ugly and growing daily. It was ugly on the exterior and went deep beyond the surface of the skin.


DMSO Application Tips
Posted by Monica ( Fenton, Michigan) on 04/19/2015
5 out of 5 stars

If you thoroughly clean the area, where you want to apply DMSO, with witch hazel, it will alleviate any itch or burn. The itch and/ or burn you are experiencing is caused by the DMSO reacting with something that is on your skin.


Bone Spur
Posted by Patty (Pennsylvania) on 10/24/2017

Alicia, I am on thyroid scripts also. I felt anxious first taking the DMSO but at the tine I had a dose of CBD oil in my system also. DMSO of what I have read states that you must be careful because the DMSO will increase the efficacy of the other meds that you are on. I cut my thryoid meds down to half the dose and so far everything is fine, in that respect. Think about that with your BP meds, if that may be better for you while on DMSO. Otherwise, it is like you are increasing your BP meds which may be harmful. Chest tightening is a concern that should not be taken lightly. I had that happen once when taking Imitrex a few years back and the dr took me off that med. I was not on DMSO back then so it had nothing to do with that. Good health to you!


DMSO Combinations
Posted by Bill (San Fenando, Philippines) on 06/18/2014
5 out of 5 stars

Hello Mrs Hill from Arkansas...When you paint DMSO + aloe vera onto your skin it is a unique characteristic of DMSO that it will transport the aloe vera through the skin transdermally and into the blood. DMSO is able to do this by increasing the porosity or permeability of the individual skin cells which are then able to allow passage of the aloe vera through the skin cells as well. It is this sudden increase in skin porosity or permeability that causes the warm feeling on your skin which is nothing to worry about and is entirely normal when using DMSO topically.

When you paint the DMSO and aloe vera onto your skin, make sure that this area is not sopping wet with DMSO +aloe vera. All you need is a thin damp layer painted onto the skin for best effect.

There is also no reason why you shouldn't use the DMSO in a sprayer. But please be aware that DMSO can dissolve some plastics. So if you're not sure then perhaps best to use a glass sprayer. So using colloidal silver and DMSO in a glass sprayer should be fine.


DMSO and Aloe Vera
Posted by Man (America) on 12/30/2013
5 out of 5 stars

I have recently bought Aloe Vera juice and put it with DMSO.

I really haven't noticed that it helps do much of anything but it hasn't hurt anything either. Even if it is just an inert substance, it still can play a role in my tinctures.

Aloe vera juice is a way to cut the DMSO to a lesser strength and for all I know, it may help something. So I am using Aloe Vera Juice in my blends now for topical application.

It may help soothe the skin but I don't see that it stops the irritation when used with DMSO cut with it.

My experiments with DMSO and Aloe Vera juice have been Straight DMSO with 30% Aloe; 40% and 50 % blends and I don't find any reduction in irritation.

When I add this to the Cayenne extract and make a blend of that. I find no irritation at all but I get the side effect of warmth where the blend is applied and it feels quite good. So a bottle filled with 50% Cayenne extract and 25 % DMSO and 25% Aloe Vera juice and a tiny spot of glycerin has a really good effect, mild.

I heated it up today by applying straight cayenne extract on top of the blend and it draws moisture and really heats up nicely on the skin. In summary, I can't tell what Aloe Vera does but I like what I read about it and it is a God-made plant it is a leaf. The leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations from Revelation chapter twenty two.

Pain
Posted by Man (America) on 12/29/2013
5 out of 5 stars

I have been making cayenne extracts to roll on areas of pain. Especially for knee or back pain issues. This cayenne extract ( in alcohol 100 proof) has been really amazing in pain relief topical application. Just today I took some DMSO and Aloe Vera juice and a spot of Kosher Glycerin and filled the rest of the ounce with cayenne extract in alcohol. I made this blend this morning and have just applied it and the heating sensation is perfect. I have been experimenting with DMSO and Aloe Vera juice too by adding 30%, or 40% or 50% of Aloe Vera Juice with coresponding amounts of pure DMSO. They all cause me to itch so far. I want to try some honey in this DMSO to see if I can make a home made blend that does not itch. Well, Until later.

Medical Grade vs Industrial DMSO
Posted by Robert Henry (Ten Mile , Tn) on 01/11/2014
5 out of 5 stars

HI U KAREN, , , , , , , , , , Seems to me that you might be getting caught up in stuff that is much to do about nothing. I buy my DMSO from Dr Jacobs and he is Mr. DMSO and states that DMSO in a poly bottle is good, but if you got a hang up, then he will ship it in a glass container for $ 5 more. He did all the original research on DMSO for Crown Zellerbach back in the 60's . What are your credentials?

What you have to watch is that most compounds distill off at a certain purity and if you want it higher then it is done by it is done by removing the water by decanting with a solvent. When I was a poor whipper snapper at Ga Tech and in Organic Chemistry, instead of stealing ethanol at 95% , I stole the the Absolute ethanol at 100%, because that had to be better. The more I stole for our Frat parties, the worse I felt.

The next summer I had a grad student teaching the class. He covered Absolute 100% ethanol, which was made by decanting the water from the 95% by using benzene and this left traces of benzene in the Absolute. Benzene is accumulative in your body and when you reach 10 grams , then you die. After that lecture , I went to him after class and explained what a friend of mine had done by stealing from the Organic Lab.

He had been down a few dusty road and told me very emphatically not to ever do that again. Since I's SJS , I never did, but I have always wondered how many grams of benzene I do have.

The lady who buys her 99% DMSO from the Farm Co-op will get no flack from me and I question your problem with it.

=========OLE ROBERT HENRY=============


Plantar Fasciitis
Posted by Patsy613 (Waupaca, Wisconsin, Usa) on 03/31/2013
5 out of 5 stars

COMMENTS ON USING DMSO. I HAD PLANTAR fasciitis for several months in 2007 before using DMSO. I put it on topically on clean skin on my foot bottom twice a day. In 3-4 days it was gone. If I felt that tightness return I did another treatment. I have had no problems for several yrs now and I go barefoot too. It is a shame we waste money on special shoes and Doctors.

Recommended DMSO Books
Posted by Leah (Philadelphia, Pa) on 04/25/2013

Hi guys, It is a heart breaking story. It makes me outraged that something so healing has been suppressed by those who were originally meant to promote the public interest. Of course we see this with many cheap, unpatentable therapies such as oxygen, IV vitamin c for cancer, using your own blood that has been subjected to uv light for hidden viruses etc. The list of forbidden, cheap, life saving herbs and therapies is quite long. If we had better education about and access to these things all chronic illness would be much easier to cure. Pharmaceuticals and surgery would become virtually obsolete.


DMSO + Lugol's Iodine
Posted by .A (Wind, Ont) on 09/22/2010
5 out of 5 stars

In reply to:

Posted by Jane (Hoddles Creek, Vic Australia) on 01/20/2010: Lugol's Iodine and DMSO - a couple of sprays on the skin once only I almost fainted 3 times that day at work and did not repeat the trial, as a nurse in home visits I didn't feel it was appropriate to faint on the job!

Yes, DMSO and Lugol's will do this but when applying this add sea salt internally and selenium and this will offset this.

Remember, the Dmso is carrying the Potassium in the system so it will lower blood pressure so you will need salt to balance it out and the selenium to regulate the iodine--I use this with an SKI/lugols I make with a 5% DMSO solution and noticed the same thing. You sleep deeply and rest like a baby but it can have a drowsy effect when not having salt.


How to Store DMSO
Posted by Mweather (Riverside, Ca) on 02/03/2012

There are different kinds of plastic, and I certainly wouldn't pour dmso into an el cheapo plastic bottle that wasn't at least food grade, but everyone should be aware that dmso is shipped from manufacturers in plastic bottles. I'm guessing they are high density plastic. I transfer mine to PET bottles, but obviously glass is good. Avoid metal caps.

There are people selling dmso online who charge more and make a big deal out of their glass bottles, without mentioning their dmso originally came in plastic. Rather misleading. They also claim it is a superior grade - but anyone can buy 99.9% purity at any livestock/feed store. It's the same stuff.

Also - I would hesitate to use a dmso product that was premixed with some other ingredient. You really don't need aloe or honey pulled through every cell in your body. Honey for one can be contaminated with pathogens - that's why we don't give it to newborns. Binding dmso to a potentially contaminated product and sending it past the blood brain barrier is just silly. If you are using dmso as a carrier agent for another ingredient, much better YOU control that ingredient and its purity.


How to Store DMSO
Posted by Mama To Many (Tennessee) on 04/04/2016

Dear Stephen,

I have some DMSO gel. I mixed it with colloidal silver and put it into a glass bottle that had a glass eyedropper to it. This made it easy to get it out by the drop as needed. It helps to avoid the plastic issue. (Though my DMSO did come in a plastic container! )

I could have mixed it with distilled water, but was wanting to use it to deliver colloidal silver deeper into the body. The gel would have to be mixed with something I think, to be able to get it thin enough to come out of the eye dropper.

~Mama to Many~


DMSO Side Effects
Posted by Ted (Bangkok, Thailand) on 11/03/2008 383 posts

Basically Aja made one major error here when he writes, "DMSO should be stored in glass containers (not plastic)...."

DMSO is sold by chemical suppliers generally in plastic containers (mine is from Fisher Scientific -picture of my DMSO is shown here) and it doesn't dissolve anything. Alcohol and acetone can dissolve certain things, namely plastic. But nothing dissolves organic compounds, such as skin, tissue, except through the process of digestion. And that is the job of Ebola, MRSA, your stomach acid to name a few.? So it is technically doubtful that a REAL CHEMIST would say that DMSO should be stored in a glass container. DMSO doesn't go through the plastic containers sold by chemical suppliers.

DMSO is actually a byproduct of paper manufacturing processes, and the paper mill tried to get rid of it by pouring on to the coal tar roads. It was a disaster, as all the animals, such as deer, squirrels started licking up this miraculous substance. And it was later that a chemist name Dr. Stanley Jacobs was looking for a suitable compound to preserve heart from damage during transportation to protect them and found DMSO by chance. It's antioxidant ability had that capability from preventing damage, but it had wide uses in a chemical fields since it offers cells to receive oxygen where blood vessels can't reach. The woman who posted the cat was right on.

The DMSO can go through the cells receiving oxygen to cells that are dying helping it revived and this is why DMSO is ideal in emergency situations such as a stroke, or brain damage situation.

To make a long story short, I used DMSO mixed with water to reduce irritation, but MSM can do it too, although it won't have that recognition in emergency situation mentioned, since MSM doesn't go through the cells as easily as a DMSO.


Herpes
Posted by Phillip (Uk) on 10/30/2014

When using dmso, which is better, gel or liquid for hsv2? Thanks


Burns
Posted by Bill (Santa Ana, ca) on 09/03/2007
5 out of 5 stars

I burned my finger one day at home. I quickly grabbed the DMSO washed my finger, poured it over the finger. The pain and swelling stopped immediately. No subsequent problems. While winter hiking in the Sierras a girl in our group burned her hand on a hot stove. I applied the DMSO from my backpack. She came to me the next morning to say she had no distress at all from the burn.

I also used it on my mother's face when she fell on the cement smashing her glasses and nose. It moved the blood right out. The next day she had yellowing of the skin. Great stuff. I carry it everywhere.


Pulled Muscles
Posted by Janice (Ocean, NJ) on 06/19/2007
5 out of 5 stars

I pulled a muscle in the upper middle back and could not turn my head full left or right. I rubbed in DMSO, & soon after, the pain was gone. It lasted the whole day, but I did have to reapply at night & then the next day. After about 4 days , the pain was completely gone! This is an amazing site--my new bible---thank you for everything!


DMSO Application Tips
Posted by Yong (Australia) on 11/10/2021

Hi Tessa,

I feel honoured to read your post. Thank you.x


Internal Use
Posted by Cindy (Illinois, USA) on 07/01/2021 337 posts

ORH - just to be clear, as an explorer, I enjoy dialogue but I don't do "debate" which is why I failed to read past the first lines of either of your remarks. I merely skimmed them and didn't realize I'd offended you. I won't apologize because it wasn't my intention but I shan't bother you again. Best wishes.


Arthritis, Cancer
Posted by Shirley (Spain) on 04/14/2021

Hi there, I have an irregular heartbeat and arthritis in the finger joint...

How would I take to DMSO to help these issues...orally? and what quantity. Do I mix it with something? I'm new to this product so any advise would help. Many Thanks.


Arthritis, Cancer
Posted by Milan (Singapore) on 03/26/2022

Hi Amy,

There have been some reports of Albendazole and Mebendazole, over the counter human and animal anti-worming medications with a long history of use and generally considered safe being involved in complete remissions of lung cancer. Two cases in point include a man called Joe Tippens, who writes a blog about his experience at

https://www.mycancerstory.rocks//single-post/my-story-part-1-start-here and a case being treated by Care Oncology in the U.K. with Mebendazole.

Joe Tippens brought this medication to light when on the suggestion of his veterinarian started taking it to address his stage 4 terminal lung cancer with positive results. There are rumours online that he has passed but as far as I can tell he is still alive and active as he has recently added a new video on his blog at my cancer story rocks.

There is also information on Pubmed regarding these medications including discussions about safety and dosages including a clinical trial with Mebendazole with a range of glioma types that has been ongoing for almost 10 years, and now due to be completed in 2022 - 2023.

I hope this information reaches you in a timely way and assists you with what you are looking for,

Kind regards. :)


DMSO Application Tips
Posted by Art (California) on 05/15/2022 1341 posts

Renee,

DMSO is a solvent and plastic is known to leach. Although quite convenient, possibly not the safest method for application because the nature of a spray bottle is that it holds the fluid in the plastic pump even when not in use. That means the solvent is in contact with the plastic 24/7 and there is no practical way to determine if the plastic has leached into the solvent. Is it worth the risk, since DMSO is well noted for carrying things through the skin barrier?

Art


Where to Buy DMSO Locally
Posted by Caralee (Texas ) on 05/20/2017
5 out of 5 stars

Just saw DMSO at the Farm & Feed store in Texas. It was 1/3 of the price that I had paid. Just FYI, same brand I bought at a Health Supplement Store.


DMSO Side Effects
Posted by Robert Henry (Ten Mile, Tn) on 08/21/2016

HI U GRI,,,,,,,,,,, it is a fact that your breath will smell like garlic when you do DMSO. That is the reason they never did a double blind test on DMSO. That is an excuse not to give the compound credibility. Too cheap and too effective. Just like Cannabis oil.

ATS =======ORH========


DMSO Activates Old Antibiotics
Posted by Robert Henry (St George Island, Fla.) on 09/13/2015

HI U OLE PATOOTS DOIN, , , , , , yep , I'm back on the beach getting my dose of Vitamin D from the sun , Magnesium from the gulf , negative ions from the waves to neutralize my free radicals. All compliments of our Lord.

I am also rereading my book on DMSO and retention is only about 20% when you read. Well, I missed this point on the first go round, but it really hit home on my second reading.

All know that bacteria and virus, etc. mutate and become immune to antibiotics. Ain't that right? Listen up, because this is the good news. Studies show that when you use DMSO with old antibiotics they become effective again. Is that great or what? The problem is that the patents have also run out and the old antibiotics are now dirt cheap..... so there is no incentive to re-engerize them. We must have new suff that is patentable so we can all go to the pore house.

All is not lost because what I am 'ciphering from this is that anything you use to address an infection or such will be enhanced by toping it off with DMSO. I don't think that statement is a stretch, but you the doctor and you make the call.

Me, I do DMSO to take things into my body and fixing to use it with my nebulizer for things that I do through my lungs. Maybe I'll become as famous as our idol, Bill Munro. If I keep posting then it worked. If not, then it did not work.

Tired of fresh shrimp and seafood gumbo so I'm grilling steaks tonight. Eat your heart out.

========ORH========


Where to Buy DMSO Locally
Posted by Betty A. (Manti, Utah) on 03/11/2015
5 out of 5 stars

I found my 99.9% pure DMSO in the animal treatment area of the local farm supply store. Ignore the part on the label that says that it is not for human consumption. That is to keep you-know-who happy. It is very reasonable in price there, also.


Bone Spur
Posted by Jorge (Redmond, Wa) on 02/01/2015
1 out of 5 stars

Warning

DO NOT DO WHAT NICK SUGGESTED. First of all, taking your blood pressure medication with DMSO will cause the amount consumed to rapidly filter into your bloodstream, which may cause a precipitous drop in your blood pressure. Second of all, blood pressure medications are designed to reach a certain concentration in your blood for a given amount of time; even though it will be more rapidly absorbed, the final concentration, if you use 1/10th of a pill, will be 1/10th of normal. This is a bad idea all around.


DMSO Side Effects
Posted by Man (Sojouring America) on 02/27/2014
5 out of 5 stars

Directed to Justin from Mexico.

I don't think there is a connection between the DMSO and Lemon juice and what you have experienced and described here. I have done some pretty crazy stuff with DMSO and I have not experienced anything like what you have described as a result. From my experience DMSO does nothing but good and positive things for the body of the man. It is a non synthetic product, I.e. not made by man. I've taken DMSO with water and vitamins, and Omega 3 fats and magnesium and cayenne extract and glycerine and I've had it before and after drinking apple cider vinegar (Malic acid). And I am not done experimenting. I have tried one (1) ounce of 99.99 pure DMSO in 20 ounces of distilled water twice a day. Once in the morning and once in the after noon. I have consumed about 2 quarts of pure DMSO since I began posting here and I haven't been posting here for that long.


DMSO Side Effects
Posted by Ryan (Waco, Tx.) on 12/07/2015

It was the magnesium.


DMSO and Aloe Vera
Posted by Bill (San Fernando, Philippines ) on 02/08/2013
5 out of 5 stars

Hi Susan... The preferred method of using aloe vera with any DMSO topical protocol is to apply the DMSO protocol first, let it be absorbed into the skin and the skin is dry, then apply the aloe oil on the skin afterwards. The aloe vera helps to rehydrate the skin and prevents skin irritation which can sometimes arise with DMSO use. I have bought a DMSO solution that also contains aloe vera - it's all I can get in the Philippines -- this is the other way of doing it. But I still think that the first method I described is better.

If you're using DMSO on its own, say, to help against an injury or arthritis then you will be using it on the same spot over and over again -- snd this is where sloe vera is quite useful -- it will help to prevent skin irritation. But if you are just using DMSO as an internal delivery mechanism for a nutrient like lugols iodine, then you should try and use the protocol in different areas of the body -- thus also reducing the possibility of skin irritations.


Pain Relief
Posted by Om (Hope, Bc Canada) on 08/25/2014

Hi Susan --- right on. Years ago when I read her books, I gave up when she demanded that people get rid of their pets.

T'is a pity but so much for that. He, people are not parasite givers? Etc.?

Namaste, Om



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