Insomnia
Natural Remedies

Natural Remedies for Insomnia, Tried and True

Kakao (Raw Chocolate)

2 User Reviews
5 star (2) 
  100%


Posted by Gabi (TORONTO, CANADA) on 02/12/2008
5 out of 5 stars

Insomnia remedy. Hi all Insomniacs! I discovered my remedy a few years ago by accident. I just turned vegan and was looking for something raw to sweeten up my food and desserts. It is KAKAO (cacao). Raw Chocolate nibs. You will find them in health food store. Take 1-2 teaspoon in the evening and chew it. I put mine in a coffee grinder.God, how well I sleep! I am not insomniac but used to have sleepless nights time to time and my friend with sleeping problems is already on it and sends me his blessings every morning so I hope it will help you also. Don't ask me if there is caffeine. I don;t know.It works. I use it when my schedule is craze and I sleep 2-4 hr every night and this is going for months sometimes.Being "on cacao" I fall in a sleep in seconds and wake up well rested. I just feel in the morning like a baby again! Please send me email if it works for you.

Replied by Susan
(Vancouver, Canada)
08/25/2009

Yes, I started using cacao (Cocoa) in the powder form. It is very healthy. I have researched it on the internet and it has the most flavanoids (immune booster) of any food. As well it is a pure protein. Do not mix with dairy as they block many of these nutrients.

Replied by Jennifer
(Sunrise, Fl)
04/21/2012
5 out of 5 stars

Cacao is rich in magnesium, which helps to promote sleep. That is why some people also have relief from insomnia from taking magnesium orally or taking epsom salt baths. :)


Kefir

1 User Review
5 star (1) 
  100%


Posted by Gina (Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada) on 10/18/2012
5 out of 5 stars

I've been plagued with insomnia for a very long time and had a little success with melatonin and 5-HTP.

However, after reading a book on controlling low blood sugar, I found a total insomnia cure. Simply have about 3/4 cup of plain yogurt or Kefir immediately before going to bed, and anytime you wake up at night. You will fall asleep easily, quickly, soundly. It's important that it's plain yogurt (either cow or goat) NOT soy, NO additives, NO fruit, and NOT just milk (all of these have natural or added sugars or lactose which will wreak havoc on your pancreas and defeat the purpose) Plain yogurt and kefir are essenitally free of lactose (milk sugar) because the probiotic bacteria have already digested this substance. Goat and Cow yogurt are both high in tryptophan , a natural precurosor to melatonin, htp, and seratonin, which are the chemicals your brain produces to cue your body to relax and sleep.

I incidentally cured my reflux with this, too. Even though you are told Not to eat at bedtime if you have reflux (gerd), I think the probiotics in my kefir snacks actually healed the lower esophogeal sphincter ( which controls the reflux)


L-Glutamine

1 User Review
5 star (1) 
  100%


Posted by Victoria (Florence, KY) on 02/26/2006
5 out of 5 stars

I tried L-Glutamine after complete colon cleanse and Candida treatment called ThreeLac. Insomnia was one of the symptoms that surprisingly disappeared. While L-Glutamine is an amino acid, and supports the body in many ways, I learned through this experience (and the guidance of a very good Holistic Chiropractor) that when this amino acid is first introduced into the body, the colon just loves it, and sucks it up. As the mucous membranes of the colon are regenerated, insomnia is one of the symptoms that fall to the wayside. I did use the L-Glutamine after a round of the candida treatment, which irradicates an overgrowth of Candida and helps to balance the pH levels of the colon and body. There is also product called HGH at night, which is rich in L-Glutamine, but this is not the original source that I took. I originally took a powder form, about 1,500 mcg. daily, first thing in the morning, as it is loaded with protein and jump starts the metabolism.

Replied by Wydo
(Ventura, Ca)
12/06/2009

I have a question for Victoria. I am very interested in the HGH at night product but I cannot find it sold anywhere. If you still have a bottle could you please post the ingredients here?

I have tried everything just about to help me get to sleep. I have just started taking GABA and it helps me get a better sleep but does not help me to get to sleep. A lot of suplements help at first but over time quit working so I cannot rate the GABA just yet. I do think you must be right about having a good bowel movement helping to make a better sleep at night. I notice when I have a good early bowel movement I can get to sleep better at night. I also have IBS so I want to work on that as well.


L-Tryptophan

4 User Reviews
5 star (1) 
  25%
3 star (2) 
  50%
1 star (1) 
  25%


Posted by Bama (Bama, US) on 03/06/2015

I've had great success with l-tryptophan and l-glycine for insomnia. To keep costs down, I bought the bulk powders of each. L-glycine is sweet and easy to take. But, the l-tryptophan tastes horrible and I can't get it to dissolve. Does anyone have any suggestions for me? A reviewer stated to mix with collagen, so I did that and it worked but wow that taste is awful! I can stomach anything, but I'll take suggestions if anyone can offer them. Thanks.


L-Tryptophan
Posted by Janet (Jefferson, Mo) on 01/05/2015
3 out of 5 stars

Worked Temporarily

I have chronic insomnia--can't get to sleep or stay asleep. I have tried everything. The latest is l-tryptophan. I took 3 capsules w/ a magnesium tablet and slept so very well. Woke up several times, felt like I was floating in a cloud, very relaxed. Next night, took same combo and slept but not as well. Night number 3 it was hours before I fell asleep and then I woke up very early and couldn't drift back off. I feel I'm on the right track here, but how do I tweak it a bit? If I could get back to that first night's reaction, I would call it fantastic and just do that forever.

Replied by Art
(California)
01/05/2015
1247 posts

Tryptophan is metabolized into melatonin. I have taken melatonin as a sleep aid and it has helped, but the effect is not always lasting so I have gotten in the habit of taking one capsule about two hours before I plan to go to bed and then one more capsule an hour later and then one capsule at bedtime. It is harder to take this way than just three capsules at bedtime, but it seems more effective for me this way because I am quite drowsy by the time I go to bed and I sleep without waking, unless I have to go the bathroom, but I fall right back to sleep after the bathroom.

I imagine that taking it this way would be similar to timed release melatonin, but I have tried timed release melatonin and it didn't work as well as taking the melatonin as above in a one, two, three fashion.

I've never tried it with tryptophan, so I don't know if it would work the same.

I only use this method when I know I want or need to get a good night's rest and it has been fairly reliable toward that end.

Art

Replied by Janet
(Anonymous)
01/06/2015

I can't use melatonin, it triggers migraines. Maybe I'll do the tryp in that way, small dose an hour before the main dose. Thanks


L-Tryptophan
Posted by Pam (Sacramento, Ca Us) on 02/13/2013
3 out of 5 stars

Better But With Side Effects

I am a diabetic and have tried L-Tryptophan for sleep. It works great for sleep but it raises my blood sugar. I searched for articles regarding this and found many that stated tryptophan can cause a rise in blood sugar levels. I had excellent control of blood sugar levels and started taking tryptophan. Everytime I took this supplement at night my blood sugar would be high in the morning. When I quit taking it, no problem. Such a bummer too, because the tryptophan helped me get a good night sleep without prescription sleeping meds. I am going to try GABA now and see how that works.


L-Tryptophan
Posted by Hope (Sacramento, CA) on 12/07/2008
5 out of 5 stars

I have had insomnia for a good 10 or more years. I have tried everything and then read a book called The Mood Cure wherein I found the answer to my problems. Because I do not do well with 5HTP, I started using L-Tryptophan. I take 1500 mg each night before retiring - I open the capsules and mix them with a small amount of rice milk and shake well before drinking. I now sleep a good 7-8 hours straight through and awake feeling exceptionally refreshed and energetic!

Replied by Helen
(Houston, TX, USA)
10/01/2014
1 out of 5 stars

I tried L-Tryptophan several nights, thought one of the other substances was what kept me alert-awake. (I was taking several things at once - B3, herbs, etc, in desperate effort to get some sleep! Bad idea for figuring what is causing a worse problem instead of helping) I was having strange feelings in my chest which I now know to be heart palpitations.

Thinking no sleep meant I wasn't taking enough L-Triptophan (and that one of the other tools was causing the strange chest thumps), I upped from 500 mg to 1000 mg (2 pills) and took only L-Tryptophan (to eliminating, I thought, whatever was causing the chest spasms). But an hour after I got to bed wow was my heartbeat crazy! Like my whole chest was throbbing! Felt like a superslow beat 5 times the usual strength, but wrist pulse revealed a weak pulse beat in between the super big ones, so the rate was normal but the strength unusual. Really scary to have a resting heartbeat that intrudes on your awareness! Got up and searched for the half life - 1-2 hours. That was reassuring. An hour later my heartbeat was still too strong but far less so. (Food based L-Triptophan has a 10-12 hour half life because it's bound to protein; the pure supplement has a short half life.)

BTW, L-Triptophan supplement wearing off fast means it might be good for helping some people get to sleep but not keeping them asleep.


Lavender Oil

2 User Reviews
5 star (1) 
  50%
1 star (1) 
  50%


Posted by Saffordshire Born And Bred (Burntwood, Staffs, England) on 01/03/2011 2 posts
5 out of 5 stars

I have heard and read about people on the net that cannot get to sleep, they don't want to go down the tablet route and ask advice? For years now I have used Lavendar Oil. It's safe and none addictive. Just a couple of drops on your pillow and you will get a good nights sleep. Regards

Replied by Trudyg
(Anon)
05/09/2013
1 out of 5 stars

Not me, I was up all night thinking of how bad the smell was. Tried again after a week, put some on a cotton ball, same thing. Moved it farther away so no smell, but still no sleep.

Replied by Jo
(Nm)
04/16/2014

The last distillation of lavender produces a "water". There is term for it which I have forgotten. We found it in CA, but anyone distilling the plant should have it. Sprayed on the face and pillow, it induces sleep. Gentle enough for the babies, and tho fragrant, does not have the intense scent of the oil. Works as well as warm milk or chamomile, but not well enough to overcome the intense pain of neuropathy.


Lemon Water

1 User Review
5 star (1) 
  100%


Posted by Terry (Hemet, California U.S.) on 02/21/2014
5 out of 5 stars

I was having a heck of a time getting sleep! I would toss and turn most of the night and I was very tired by morning. I have heard so many people that are now senior citizens claim that they can't sleep? So I know that I am not alone with this frustrating problem.

I learned this from my husband as he loves to read about health issues.

He told me to try this for insomnia:

1. Fill a pitcher or container full of clean water.

2. Take a fresh lemon and slice it across in a few slices.

3. Place the slices of lemon in the water and allow this to sit for awhile.

4. Throughout the day drink a few glasses for this lemon/water. I try to drink at least 5 or 6 glasses of the lemon water.

This helps me sleep like a baby! Don't give up if it doesn't work for a few days. Keep drinking this solution.

What the lemons do is Alkaline the water! My husband read that our drinking water is too acidity. He read that this solution is similar to using baking soda. This has helped me so much in getting sleep.

I hope it works for those with insomnia. It works for my husband, my sister in law, and it works for me!

Once more thing if you use sugar in this water the sugar will only make the water acid again. Please do not use sugar in it.


Lettuce Tea

1 User Review
5 star (1) 
  100%


Posted by Mary Martinez (Arcadia, Ca) on 02/21/2018
5 out of 5 stars

LETTUCE TEA. For insomnia

I found this recipe from a lady I buy plants from. She said that her baby grandaughter was very troublesome so he said she rubbed the baby with lettuce leaves and placed a few underneath her pilllow as well and the baby went right to sleep! I found the recipe on the computer here it is:

How to Make Lettuce Leaf Tea

If you are wondering what else to do with all that lettuce laying around the house - try making a great cup of tea for insomnia. This simple recipe for lettuce tea will help you with insomnia and also acts as a mild sedative. The recipe was found in a 40 year old herbal medicine book - and I have tried it. It works ever so gently.

After the basic recipe there is more information about the particular lettuce that I chose, romaine, which is by far more nutritious than iceberg. I always recommend that lettuce be bought organic only.

Recipe for Lettuce Leaf Tea:

- 2 outer leaves of organic romaine lettuce

- 8 ounces of water

Thoroughly wash the leaves and then simmer for 20 minutes in the 1/2 pint of water.

Strain and drink before bedtime

How often should I drink it? - While it is recommended as a nightly drink - I'd suggest trying it first on the weekend when you don't have to get up for work and see how you feel. It is supposed to have sedative effects and I found the next day that I wanted to lay around and read a book. I didn't feel tired but wanted to lay around - it felt quite good. Perhaps that is the sedative effect.

Read the full article: https://hubpages.com/food/Make-Lettuce-Tea-for-Insomnia

Replied by Mama To Many
(Tn)
02/22/2018

Mary,

This is great!

100 years ago, Beatrix Potter wrote about the "soporific effect of lettuce on the Flopsy Bunnies" in a children book! The bunnies were sound asleep from eating too much lettuce.

I guess she knew what she was talking about!

Thanks!

~Mama to Many~


Light Therapy

Posted by Trudy (Va) on 08/02/2013

Does anyone know if light therapy works? If so, what kind of thing are you looking for when shopping for a light box? I'm still searching for a solution to my chronic insomnia. I go to bed fairly early, but don't fall asleep. If I stay up later, I don't fall asleep. When I do sleep, I sleep in snatches of 15-20 minutes and wake up. I actually sleep better on the couch with the tv on--the show occupies my mind and stifles the chatter. After an hour or so of this, I can usually get up and go to bed. Even then, if I do go back to sleep, I'm only sleeping for short periods of time before waking. I leave the house for work at 6 a.m. , so I can't try going to bed at what most think of as bedtime. Also, I get up at 4 to feed the livestock (so I get early morning sun/light) and get ready for work, so what's early for you may be late for me.

Replied by Steve
(Nevada)
08/02/2013

Not sure if light therapy would help with insomnia. I think a sleep formula might be more helpful.

Replied by Innanalives
(Middletown, Delaware)
08/03/2013

Poppy oil capsules work very well for chronic insomnia. Dreams are life-like and you wake up feeling refreshed. Please be advised that blue lights from appliances can cause insomnia...

Replied by Trudy
(Va)
08/04/2013

I have tried everything (sleep formula) that has been suggested on earth clinic. That's why I'm asking about the light therapy. I've tried sounds, herbs, finger-dcounting, pillow method, mag oil---the only thing I've seen so far that I haven't tried is what someone just suggested--poppy oil capsules. Never heard of that one. Will get some and try it. I need relief. The onlyh sleep I get is with ambien, and it's not restorative. Other than that when I take an imitrex and hydrocodone for chronic migraine. Thank everyone for the suggestions, I jsut wish I'd get something new to try as nothing has worked and ted has not responded. I think I have something very basic going on that has not been addressed, but can't think of what. I have never been a good sleeper and have always had ibs-D (over 50 years).

Replied by Mike Giller
(Denver, Colorado)
08/04/2013

Dear Trudy, eating cooked improperly processed food from big agra is causing the glands to produce a harmfull substance called cortisol. This is causing insomnia and migraines. The cells of the glands are not being nourished, free radicals are damaging the dna, and toxins are poisoning the tissues. Raw vegan 80/10/10 is an effective strategy. You can watch their videos on youtube for inspiration. The program is time consuming and costs 1 cent per calorie. I am a poor man and not able to afford that. Fortunately there is an easy and affordable solution. For carbs take as much as you want of 1/2 raw honey and 1/2 sun dried whole organic cane juice called rapadura or sucanet. For oil take 1 tsp. Flax oil and 1 tsp. Coconut oil together at the same time 4 times a day. For protein, vitamins, minerals, growth factors, and phytochemicals take the super foods raw whey, absorbable colostrum, hawaiin spirulina, korean chlorella, raw cocoa, and nondefatted dessicated liver. For vitamin c and bioflavanoids take 3 grams of freeze dried acerola cherry powder. Non gmo aka red miso can be purchased at the asian grocery store 1 kg. for $6. They also have bean sprouts for $1 a lb. For a, d, k2, and shark cartilage take 1ml. of raw fermented skate liver oil 2 times per day. The superfoods can be purchased on the internet in bulk for wholesale prices. Take 1 cup of water every hour. While waiting for the superfoods to arrive, make green smoothies from organic baby leaves and organic parsley. Take eggs from pastured hens raw. Eat rare hamburger from grass fed cattle. Take these frequently. Take as much as you can afford. You can tell me the results after beginning the program.

Replied by Trudy
(Va)
08/05/2013

My question was 'does light therapy work'. Thank you for your reply, but I am not willing to go vegan. I have free range, pastured hens for eggs. I grow a garden. I buy a side of pastured, grass fed beef for my freezer. Yes, I'm sure I eat gmo food--it's near impossible not to, but I do my best to avoid it. My diet is very good--home-grown foods for the vast majority. Also, one cup of coffee in the morning then only water. I can't be outside b/c I work, so that's my question--do light boxed help with insomnia?

Replied by Mike Giller
(Denver, Colorado)
08/05/2013

Dear Trudy, thank you for the reply. I eat raw grass fed liver and raw eggs from pastured hens. There are many important nutrients that are denatured through cooking. Light therapy won't cure a nutritional deficiency. I believe the problems are caused by a nutritional deficiency. I could be wrong. I have been wrong before. Most of the time I am wrong. You could try eating the beef rare and the eggs raw. Eskimos who live traditionally like their hunter gatherer ancestors eat mostly raw and rare wild meat and fat. A leopard eats an antelope raw. A racoon who steals a duck egg eats that raw. We are the only animals who cook food. You might try making smoothies from the green leaves from the garden. The nutrients are locked up in the cellulose. Grinding up the green leaves in the blender releases the nutrients from the cellulose and makes them available to the cells. I take hawaiin spirulina and korean chlorella insteak of raw green organic leaves because they are more cost effective and less time consuming. Herbavores all over the world eat greens that have chlorophyll. The longest lived animal on the planet is an eighty ton whale who eats mostly plankton and some tiny sea creatures raw. Thanks for the reply. Please reply again. Thank you.

Replied by Mt
(Ottawa, Ontario, Canada)
08/05/2013

Due to IBS you may have a vitamin/ mineral imbalance. See this link for deficiencies in Vitamins B: http://www.longevinst.org/nlt/newsletter19.htm. You should get a book describing the vitamins and minerals required by the body.

If you do not have enough sun exposure, you may be vitamin D deficient.

For IBS you should try to eat green bananas -the starch from these bananas can heal the intestines. Do you eat raw garlic/ onion? Do you avoid gluten? Do you drink spring water?

Read about calamus roots-it is a good way to heal the digestive system.

Replied by Amy
(Colorado)
08/06/2013

Yes, light therapy can help but you have to be careful because there are all sorts of light therapy and some can be pretty startling. I would look for they light therapy that uses a moving bed along with gradually using all spectrums of light. Some light therapy abruptly flashes light and can be very startling and more harmful than good. There is a great place in Niwot, CO.

The other thing you may want to try is healthy probiotics. If you have taken antibiotics or eaten a bunch of meat with antibiotics, this can cause a lack of healthy enzymes in your stomach which can cause problems with sleep. It could have been a long time ago that you consumed the antibiotics, but if you never replaced them with healthy antibiotics, it can still be a huge problem You want to get the best possible probiotics you can, because if you only take mediocre ones, that will not help. I took 2 at least 20 minutes before I ate in the morning and 2 at least 20 minutes after I ate before I went to sleep and within 3 doses, I slept great. I finished a bottle of 90 and was fine for a while.


Liver and Kidney Detoxing

1 User Review
5 star (1) 
  100%


Posted by Faith (Unalaska) on 03/30/2022
5 out of 5 stars

For Insomnia and waking up at 2-3AM in the morning thats the liver and kidneys trying to detox.


Magnesium

9 User Reviews
5 star (6) 
  67%
3 star (2) 
  22%
(1) 
  11%


Posted by Raeofsun13 (Colorado) on 12/25/2018
5 out of 5 stars

Thought I would share my remedy and experience with not sleeping great. I have had two cervical fusions and am fused at 3 levels. I also have had an arm surgery with screws in my arm. I have arthritis and a bone spur on my big toe, arthritis is my thumbs and numerous other aches and pains. I was a competitive gymnast in my youth and hard on my body. I have tried various things to help me sleep, during the time of my surgeries I was on ambien, which I wouldn't recommend to anyone.

The thing that I have found most helpful is Magnesium Glycinate, it is the most highly absorbable form of magnesium for our bodies. I am amazed at how much better I have been sleeping. Have been taking 3/4 teaspoon at night, typically able to sleep through the night now, I used to wake up around 3 and toss and turn due to aches and pains. I have used this also when feeling sore or whenever I feel too many aches and pains. It works great.


Magnesium
Posted by Bama (Bama) on 02/29/2016
3 out of 5 stars

Better But With Side Effects

I have ibs-d and insomnia. Ted (I think) suggested magnesium for the insomnia, but I have to be careful taking it because of the diarrhea. So, I've been reading and have heard of something called angstrom magnesium--such small particles that it bypasses the gut and goes straight into the system. So, I got some and tried it last night--had diarrhea all day today. I also do the mag oil, so am I getting too much? It did seem to help me sleep, I was groggy most of today, but it wasn't a good sound sleep. I wake and doze all night. I also take niacin (500 mg 2X/day), the code kind of multivitamin, d3, b complex, astaxanthin (4 mg/d), calcium aep (don't remember the dose) and ubiquinol (200 mg/d). I use the mag oil in the morning after my shower, about a tablespoon worth. I thought the angstrom kind didn't cause digestive upset--maybe it was something else? I really felt under the weather all day. Thanks for the input.


Magnesium
Posted by Wendy (Westport, Ct) on 09/22/2013
5 out of 5 stars

I have been suffering from insomnia which really kicked in this summer. I think it is perimenopausal or hormonally based insomnia. The one remedy that has worked beautifully for me has been magnesium. I take 1 teaspoon of magnesium powder (the kind that dissolves in water) just before going to sleep and having been sleeping through the night. What a miracle it has been! If I wake up and need to use the bathroom, getting back to sleep takes only minutes. I tried taking magnesium earlier in the day and it didn't have the same effect. Taking it just before going to sleep is the perfect time.

Before I took magnesium, I would wake up at the slightest sound and then be awake for 2-3 hours.

I started at 1/2 teaspoon of magnesium poweder in 1/2 glass of warm water and have slowly worked my way up to 1 teaspoon because of the loose stools effect. I did get a series of stomach aches and a few rounds of diarrhea when I started taking magnesium but now I can tolerate larger and larger doses. It did take a few weeks to go from 1/2 teaspoon to 1 teaspoon.

Replied by Tom
(Fort Worth, Texas)
09/24/2013

Wendy: Thank you for that great post on the use of magnesium and insomnia. I have insomnia problems that herbals haven't seemed to help. (Worry about work I think.) But I'll try the mag at night as you recommended.

Replied by Toourlady
(Hayward, Ca)
09/25/2013

There several forms of Magnesium. One of the most absorbable would be Mg Glycinate capsules, it does not have the laxative side effect.

Replied by Wendy
(Westport, Ct)
10/01/2013

Thanks Tourlady89, I will try Mag Glycinate. Would be nice not to experience side effects from Magnesium! I have also recently tried magnesium oil but waiting around for the oil to absorb into the skin for 20 minutes isn't much fun!

Replied by Tim
(Chicago, Illinois)
04/10/2014

Liquid forms of magnesium chloride or magnesium citrate are great, and there is also a pill form of Magnesium Glycinate that's also very effective. Magnesium definitely helps to cure insomnia, that's for sure! Best, too, if you take small doses throughout the day, not just at night when you want to go to sleep. Take it throughout the day so it can build up in your system. A lot of times people (and people in general) with insomnia are deficient in magnesium.

Replied by KT
(Usa)
04/11/2014

Compelled to provide this warning: according to a nutrition almanac, high levels of magnesium can cause skeletal paralysis, respiratory depression, coma and death. Magnesium is generally well tolerated but there are exceptions and when in doubt, a physician should be consulted. Sometimes less is better.

Replied by Gabrielle
(Los Angeles, Ca)
04/16/2014

Magnesium Chloride, liquid form 2 teaspoons 3 X a day. Magnesium Glycinate (tablets), and liquid Magnesium Citrate all have been very effective for me in helping me relax and having a good, sound night's sleep.

Replied by Yc
(Virginia)
01/17/2017
0 out of 5 stars

I took 400 mg magnesium glycerinate an hour before bed for 2 nights and had severe insomnia both nights. Does that mean I am not MG deficient? Or should I take them during the day? I have been having menopause based insomnia, I think, for over 5 years, and so eager to find something that can help me sleep.

Replied by Jean H.
(Us)
04/15/2018

I don't doubt what you're saying, but magnesium has what's called 'bowel tolerance' where your body shunts any excess to the GI tract washing it out. When you've reached the amount your body needs, you develop loose stools and/or diarrhea that washes the excess out of your system. Look at the magnesium citrate given for bowel cleanses and colonoscopies that are at least 12,000 mg, and are considered to be safe.



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