Natural Remedies

Effective Natural Remedies for Asthma

Environmental Triggers

1 User Review

Posted by Lauren (Memphis, TN) on 10/26/2008
0 out of 5 stars

I just wanted to make all those asthma sufferers, including Liz from Wisconcin, a little more aware of their environment and possible triggers that they may not be aware of. I have Multiple Chemical Sensitivities, and developed asthma 18 years ago, when I moved into my sister's new townhouse. I thought her cats were making me sick, including the asthma, but they weren't. It was the townhouse.

Many elements of our home and work environments are overloaded with synthetic chemicals, which are the main trigger for my asthma. For example, carpeting is processed with a number of toxic synthetic chemicals, including formaldehyde. Much of the manufactured furniture is made of composite woods, which also contain formaldehyde and toxic glues. Our interior environments are loaded with many synthetic chemicals, so I suggest you learn more about them. Many manufactured components take months or years to outgas and can silently make a person ill. Furniture, carpet, cleaning solutions, health and beauty aids are loaded. Fragrances, including perfumes and air fresheners are nothing but synthetic chemicals that you and your family are breathing in, and those toxins are building up in your bodies.

With my condition, I try to be very careful about what comes into my home, as it is my safe place. Recently, I purchased a dehumidifier for our basement, which produced some kind of gas that floated up through the floor boards (I couldn't smell anything). It never occured to me that this would be a dangerous piece of equipment, but it was. Just beware of the unknown....four years ago, I took doxycycline which caused a severe asthma episode that lasted for 4 or 5 weeks. You never know!

In addition to the asthma I am currently experiencing,I have also had an annoying cough at night. That's what brought me to Earthclinic tonight, as I needed to deal with this. I figured the most effective concoction would include AVC..I wasn't dissapointed! I can tolerate ACV, but don't like honey, so I heated 2 Tablespoons of ACV, 1 Tablespoon each of honey and lemon in 1 cup of water. With the first sip, it calmed my cough and I think it has eased my asthma some too. This mixture was almost tasty, and I will definitely keep it up! Thanks everyone!

Replied by Martha
(El Centro, California)


Absolutely, environmental triggers are an important aspect. Windy days can bring on attaches and the sediment that is lifted can take days to come down from the atmosphere to bother us many days after the winds die down.

Being from the desert, I am aware of the dryness of our winters. Any time it gets lower than 30% humidity, I say watch out! Cuz it triggers the itching in the throat, coughing, etc. So I hang a wet towel in my room for some humidity. It helps me breathe. Also, if the weather gets too cold, I have trouble. I set the thermostat at 69 degrees just enough to cut the cold because if it gets below that, I have trouble breathing!


1 User Review
5 star (1) 

Posted by Deborah (San Francisco, CA)
5 out of 5 stars

I have been taking Ephedra for 8 months now and find it the best remedy so far. I am considered a servere chronic asthmatic and have only had to use the inhaler about two times a week now. The secret is to only use the amount you need and not more. I feel it has been made illegal in the United States because if more people used this herb which has been used in Chinese herbs for 2000 years, the pharmaceutical companies would lose a lot of business. Peace and love and prayers every day for all asthmatics.

Fish Oil

2 User Reviews
5 star (2) 

Posted by Shana (Miami, Florida, Usa) on 07/03/2010
5 out of 5 stars

I suffered for years with asthma, made worse by cold wet weather. It was one of the reasons I moved to a warmer climate. Inhalers and other medications did not really work. It felt like a giant hand would just squeeze the air out of my lungs. Once I was at a lecture with a friend and he said people thought I was making fun of the speaker, when actually it was my wheezing! Both of my parents smoked,and I think I was dealing with COPD from the time I was five or six. I can remember hiding in closets as a small child so people wouldn't hear me wheeze and clear my lungs. I don't smoke, never have.

I researched for natural cures and found fish oil. I started taking it and the wheezing went away. My lungs feel pliant and able to open up. Wet and cold weather do not affect me anymore. I can breathe! When I don't take the fish oil, the wheezing comes back, so I'm convinced that what is what works for me.

The recommended amount I read is one teaspoon for every 50 lbs. of weight. That's what I take. I usually will take a liquid form, but sometimes pills, so I will take about three or so of those. My body lets me know how much works. I take the fish oil in the morning. I also take flax oil at night, one or two tablespoons. But when I only take flax oil, the wheezing comes back. It has to be fish oil (sorry vegetarians, I don't know any other answers for you).

In the winter I take cod liver oil, in the summer just regular fish oil. Both work as well, but the cod liver oil has vitamin D, which I feel I get enough of in the summer.

So I believe for me, the answer is that I need the omega 3 fatty acids for normal lung function.

The taste can be unpleasant, but there are flavored forms and then of course the pills, though they tend to be rather large.

Another bonus is that I notice my vision is much clearer when I faithfully take fish oil, particularly the cod liver oil. The owner of one of the vitamin stores I go to says that the elderly customers who have taken cod liver oil their entire lives often have 20/20 vision. I believe it.

I hope this can help someone and I'm really glad I found this site. I'm trying a few of the suggestions here and will post in a while when I see (or don't see) results.

Fish Oil
Posted by Shirley (Michigan)
5 out of 5 stars

I take 2 tablespoons daily of a pure fish oil and my asthma stays away. Fish oil reduces inflammation.

Get a Correct Diagnosis

1 User Review
5 star (1) 

Posted by Greystone (Vancouver) on 08/05/2017
5 out of 5 stars

Asthma is one of the most common ailments that is misdiagnosed and recently a study came indicating that 88% first diagnosis made is incorrectly. So, please read this: Silent acid reflux mimics asthma.

A couple things to look for 1) You have trouble breathing, 2) you have more difficulty getting air in than getting air out out?

Acid reflux causes you to have trouble getting air in during inspiration. People with asthma have difficulty getting air out of the lungs. Make sure you have the correct diagnosis!

When I was sick I was misdiagnosed at least seven times. That is seven time too many in my book. Getting on an treatment can permanently cure this asthma-like breathing problem. If you do not have enough acid in your stomach and this can happen as you get older or even to someone younger. not correct digestion leads to acid build up which causes acid reflux.

My ND put me on HCL, hydrochlric I simply took a few bites of food then take a HCL pill I was told to take one tablet if not burning in the stomach, then next time you eat take two, then next time you eat take three. As soon as it begins burning in the stomach cut back to two.

There are other ways as well one is licorice or good old baking soda, since we all know it is alkalizing and it neutralizes stomach acid fast, and alkalizes the entire system. Mix 1/2 teaspoon to full teaspoon in an 8 ounce glass of pure waterand drink immediately. You will find out fast if you have asthma or acid reflux Be caution because baking soda can raise your blood pressure.

Replied by Charity
(Faithville, Usa)

I was just reading your posts and thought I might add some things. I learned a lot from books by Dr.Batmanghelidj about water and minerals, he is passed on but has a website called watercure. One of his books is on how to cure asthma. I also learned a lot from watching Eric Berg on youtube about cortisol. He teaches on others topics but stress has run my life so I study that area.

Glutathione, MSM

1 User Review
5 star (1) 

Posted by Susan (New York City, New York) on 10/11/2011
5 out of 5 stars

Try inhaled Glutathione (you will need to get a prescription from a holistic doctor). It works wonders for all sorts of severe breathing problems! Please ask about this miraculous supplement from a knowledgable holistic doctor - you will need to get it from a compounding pharmacy. I know MSM works well for breathing troubles, too, so that is something to look into as well.

Green Tea

2 User Reviews
5 star (2) 

Posted by Susan (Kingston, Jamaica) on 01/28/2007
5 out of 5 stars

I had to write this because, by accident I found that green tea, made my breathing better. I took some oolong tea(type of green tea)for helping with weightloss and I noticed that after I had it my breathing was better. I don't know why it helps but the truth is as soon as I drink it I feel better. I have mild athsma, and this may not help all cases, but it will not hurt to try it.

Replied by Kat
(San Diego, Ca)

I just wanted to respond to the post that says oolong tea is a type of green tea because oolong tea is NOT a type of green tea. Green tea is unfermented tea leaves, black tea is fermented tea leaves, and oolong is in between the two, being semi fermented. (Oolong also has a caffiene amount that is halfway between that of green and black tea). For a reference, try looking it up on Wikipedia:

It may be that is is helping your symptoms because of the caffeine content. But who knows, oolong tea is supposed to be good for you in all kinds of ways. But motivated people may want try comparing its asthma relieving effects to coffee or black tea. If it is less effective than those then it's probably the caffeine that's having the effect.

Green Tea
Posted by Nadine (NY)
5 out of 5 stars

i drink green tea for my asthma. i found this out by accident. a friend of mine gave me some spaghetti sauce and i had a reaction to it. my throat started to close up pn me and i was already having trouble breathing from my asthma and i didnt have my inhaler prescription filled. well i had some green tea made up that i was trying for the first time because everyone was saying green tea is good for you so i thought i'd try it. well i drank the tea and went into the other room to sit and try to breath and relax. i was in there a little while when i realized i was breathing well better than i had before i ate the spaghetti sauce so i was a science major at the time in college so i thought i'll just experiment and see if this is real so i went back out and ate some more spaghetti sauce. immediately my throat started to close up on me i drank some more tea and in a very short time i could breathe and my throat no longer closed up on me. ive been drinking the green tea for my asthma ever since. it works faster than provental for me and i very rarely ever use an inhaler. my doctor asked me what i was using to treat my asthma as i hadn't gotten prevental in a year and i told him green tea. you can imagine the reaction i got! LOL. well he said maybe all the water youve been drinking cut it for you. lol. i drink it every day for my asthma, especially if i'm having a hard time breathing. it won't cure your asthma but it will help.

H2O2 Inhalation Therapy

11 User Reviews
5 star (7) 
4 star (1) 
3 star (2) 

Posted by Myway (Wilmington, De) on 10/28/2014
5 out of 5 stars

I have had mild asthma for years but still had to take a corticosteroid (Advair) once a day. I've been determined to get off that stuff so I threw caution to the wind and used Bill Munroe's method but only inhaled 6 squirts once in the morning of the 3% solution hydrogen peroxide daily. This is day asthma symptoms. Do you all realize how empowering it is to be using a therapy that is $0.50 a month as opposed to $40 (with insurance)? Once I get my 3% food grade hydrogen peroxide, I'll dilute it further till I hit the maintenance dose - hopefully < o.5%. As a nurse, I find this therapy a whole lot less destructive then the steroids offered patients. Period!

Replied by MyWay
(Wilmington, De)

Update: I am still having great success with the h202 inhalation therapy - using 6 squirts of the 3% food grade hydrogen peroxide a day. However, I really wanted to get to the root of this mild cold induced asthma condition so, I investigated my background a bit. I was born with asthma many years ago and was given many medications. My mother had little knowledge of the condition and so, I was given the standard meds back in the late 60's. Anyhow, I seemed to have little problems with asthma for many years but in reappeared about 10 years ago. I started with medications like singulair, flovent, duo-nebs, was awful stuff. After 10 years, I knew I had to figure out this issue.

Fast forward to today...I am using hydrogen peroxide but knew that I must find out, on a cellular level, what is making me asthmatic. I started reading nutritional journals on the science behind nutrition therapy so, my investigation led me to Dr. Carolyn Dean and magnesium deficiencies. I have taken magnesium before but the pill forms are not bioavailable and, according to my research, we only get about 4% of the magnesium needed by taking a pill.

I delved into Dr. Deans blog, read everything I could about our deficiencies here in the United States and decided to get my magnesium RBC's checked (red blood cells) ...according the Dr. Dean, It needs to be above 6.0 and I was at 5.0. (I can't remember the measurement). I ordered her magnesium because in all honesty, I do believe the magnesium she developed truly is absorbable so much more then what we get from the nutrition shops and doesn't give me "the runs."

I have absolutely no affiliation with Dr. Dean but I respect her work and research immensely - I say this because I am sitting here, day 3 taking her magnesium liquid.....and no need for Advair or H202 therapy. Have I been magnesium deficient for so many years because of all the fluoride in my daily life? I believe so....I am speechless. The fluoride molecules are in so many medications and they hang on to the magnesium we get from our food sources. The pharmaceutical companies add fluoride to the medicines so they are more powerful but, with a price. I know Advair has fluoride molecules, my toothpaste has fluoride molecules, my water source has fluoride molecules.....folks, if you or your child have been taking ANY medications for many, many years (like me), get your magnesium RBC's checked. Here is a site that indicates which meds have fluoride in them.

I give this information to everyone because it has taken me at least two years of investigation to get to this point and I hope it can help others. When I have my magnesium RBC's checked again, I will give everyone an update.

Replied by Myway
(Delaware, Usa)

Update: So here it is, my journey seems to be almost complete with my asthma. I use Bill Monroe's H202 Therapy as a go-to if I start wheezing, take 2 teaspoons of Black Seed Oil (Nigella Sativa) daily to reduce systemic inflammation AND keep my sinuses clear of mucous plus, take Dr. Carolyn Dean's Remag (picometer size liquid magnesium), 1/2 tsp 2X a day....and continue to practice buteynko method of breathing. BTW, my Magnesium RBC (red blood cell) test was 5.0 mg/dL and according to Dr. Dean, it needs to be between 6.0-6.5 mg/dL, not the 4.2-6.8 mg/dL as indicated on the test range. The fluoride in the Advair was leaching the magnesium from my system - hence, I was not getting the proper nutrition I needed to combat my asthma. My body was not getting properly fueled nutritionally because the magnesium was not allowed to drag into the cells the vitamins and nutrients it needed.

If you have an interest in getting to the root of some of your health issues, I suggest you read the follow excerpt from functional medicine university. This one page of information is an eye opener as it relates to magnesium deficiencies.

Replied by P
(Portland, Or)

Hi MyWay,

I am so happy I saw your post in my seemingly endless search for dealing with my 6-year old's asthma. We are seeing a moderate (not so steroid-happy) allergy specialist, he eats a very healthy diet, I constantly run air filter, we have all the bedding covers, his bedding is washed at least weekly and still.. It's been frustrating and I do not want to see my little guy on so many medications for the rest of his life, it's plain disturbing - our bodies do not need so much life support to function! Your research resonated with my personal experience as I recently had a horrible neck/shoulder pain and nothing was having a lasting effect on it, until my chiropractor suggested that I tried magnesium supplement - it was amazing! Within days, all my pain has gone. The magnesium deficiency, was making my muscles spasm and I can completely see that for asthmatics for the lung muscles thus causing difficulty breathing. I'm definitely going to look into this, especially since it also robs my little one of the nutrients. Thank you so much for your suggestion!

H2O2 Inhalation Therapy
Posted by Ja (Philadelphia, Pa) on 02/28/2013
0 out of 5 stars

H2OH Inhalation for Asthma: The first time I tried the h2oh in my neb, I didnt have the unstabilized kind, but was desperate and used one with a stabilizer. It worked instantly. I went and food the arron brands and started using that. Since then, Every time I try to start the treatment I get really really bad reactions. My asthma gets worse than ever, my heart rate goes crazy going from 40-100 bpm at random, and one one very bad night it was racing and then stopping for about 4 beats. At first I thought the asthma attack were coinciding with my efforts, but after trying so many times, I think it is a result. I have always had some sort of allergy to mold but was never diagnosed by a doctor. I was traveling in Boston at the age of twenty when the first bad attack happened and went to the er around there. They x-rayed my lungs and said there were no signs of asthma but thats the diagnosis because my symptoms point that way. Suddenly getting asthma at the age of twenty seemed like a joke to me!! Isnt that what a 20 year old girl dreams of? I imagined wearing an inhaler on a neclace. Since these reactions, I am wondering if I have some sort of fungus or virus in my lungs, and they are reacting spitefully to the threat of thier environment the excess oxygen is bringing? I did cough up a lot of mucus and some bloody mucus or clots.

Every time I try the treatment I end up having to get an rx for prednisone because I can't take how bad the asthma is. I get really erratic and upset, maybe the lack of oxygen? I also get a chemical smell when my asthma is at its worse. I thought it was my car, but I get whiffs of it everywhere and no one else can smell it. The only chemical I use is mouse in the roots of my hair, don't even use body wash (got a three year skin allergic reaction, not taking that chance again), homemade pure laundry detergent, etc.

Any ideas of how I can safely use the h20h, what the smell is, and if my asthma is really some sort of infection? It has been five years now, the only time I did not have asthma was when I was pregnant and breastfeeding.

Replied by Mmsg
(Somewhere, Europe)

Ja, try: 1. Using food grade h2o2. 2. Try diluting it a LOT. For example try ONE drop in distilled water for a start.

Replied by Timh
(Louisville, Ky)
2080 posts

Ja: Dido on Mmsg recommendation.

Is the chem odor you smell something like Ammonia???; this happened to me using nebulized Colloidal Silver, but I am thankfully over that now.

First, try greatly improving the air quality in your home. HEPA filters and Negative Ion Generators should help.

There are a number of herbal supplements specifically formulated to improve lung function, worth trying. Swanson Foods sells a very old Chinese formula containing many herbs that have helped many folks, a really superior product worth trying (I think it's labeled "Lung Essentials").

Try boosting your natural defenses with Wheat Sprouts.

Please update us how your doing.

Replied by Ja
(Philadelphia, Pa)

Hi, I have not tried the h202 inhalation again since I wrote in. I drink it on occasion but would like to wait until I get it under control without any major hiccups before trying again. The last thing I want is to have to turn to a large dose of steroid again as I've read too often this is retroactive in the healing of the lungs and for asthma. It is like an ammonia smell but I have never had the colloidal silver. Thank you for the suggestion... I started drinking the asthma tea, a few brands make it. I stopped cold turkey: the fast acting, my daily steroid inhalent (which was perscribed 4x the normal dosage) and the nebulizer. I started eating lots of garlic, onions, baking soda, avc, kelp extract, fish oil, 3000 mg of vit c as antihistamine, and a sickening amount of other vitamins. I for the most part stay away from all sugars and carbs unless they are dark green veggies. The asthma has never been better. It is not perfect but this is my own fault as I am not consistent with taing the vitamins every night and I am not consistent with quitting smoking. Just read about this flax oil mucilage made at home that is supposed to be wonderful for mucous and lungs... But has a heavy detox effect as it supposedly rids the body of the viruses that hide in the spinal cord until the immune is supressed... it will be interesting if I get the same side effects.

H2O2 Inhalation Therapy
Posted by Reba (Portland, Oregon) on 12/08/2012
4 out of 5 stars

I am just recovering from a nasty virus which caused my asthma and sinus congestion to worsen. A doctor prescribed a steroid inhaler, but I reacted badly to it. I began a 1% hydrogen peroxide inhalation via the mouth with a nasal spray pump (5 pumps per inhale, 5 times daily). I'm also taking 600 mg extended release guaifenesin (Mucinex) with no other active ingredients, to loosen things up. After only 3 days, I'm feeling tremendously improved. My coughing is much less than even before I became ill. My sinuses are clearer and so are my thoughts.

While I believe there are limits to how long and often one should do this, I absolutely can't argue with its effectiveness. I'm hopeful that this awful 3 year battle with asthma and 25 year battle with sinus congestion may be ending. I've researched endlessly and over the years have tried so many supplements and herbs that just didn't help. My advice to anyone trying this is to ease into it a bit and never start with a 3% solution. I doubt I will ever go stronger than 1% because my body reacts strongly to medications.

Many people are afraid of hydrogen peroxide because strong solutions are so dangerous. As with so many compounds, whether something is a poison or a medicine is all about the concentration. I learned this once when I put straight 3% hydrogen peroxide in my ultrasonic humidifier and inhaled the mist deeply and repeatedly. My breathing started shutting down and I was barely able to inhale enough albuterol to stop the attack. I think people just have to be smart about things and shouldn't go overboard. And I definitely recommend trying this approach long enough and frequently enough to see what it can do.

I believe allergies play a part in asthma and sinus problems, with the secretions in sinus and lung tisssues forming a material which gradually is populated by microorganisms from the environment and ultimately creates a biofilm. Biofilms can become highly impenetrable to drugs, a problem which is the target of much medical research.

My hope is that the 1% hydrogen peroxide inhalations will be the means of killing the bugs which are probably residing in films in my lungs and sinuses and causing my asthma. I believe taking the guaifenesin and drinking plenty of water is important in helping to move out those problematic secretions--killing the bugs is good, but getting rid of the gunk makes it even better.

H2O2 Inhalation Therapy
Posted by Jim (Sun City Center, Fl) on 03/09/2012
5 out of 5 stars

Have been remiss and never said thanks to Bill. I had chronic asthma, using 2 different inhalers from VA, 3 snorts am and pm. Started inhaling peroxide about 5 years ago, initially had some throat irritation. Stopped for a week and restarted at half strength. Figured it was coating on back of my throat from years of inhaling. Did 50% for a week and then full strength. Still have my 3 refills from VA in linen closet as a reminder. On a recent visit annual vist to VA I got a new female MD, She almost had a cow when I told her how I cured asthma, in so many words she said "impossible and insisted that I take a rescue inhaler which I returned unopened when they arrived.

My wife of 55 years has had a chronic minor cough, which may have been a throw back to when she smoked. She had heart problems 7 years ago and quit. A few months ago I got her started on using a small inhaler and keeping it on a table next to her TV chair. The cough is now non existent. My sincere thanks Bill and I know the good Lord has blessed you for your efforts. Jim

Replied by Shelly

Hi. Not sure if you will see this since this post is 2 years old, but how much of the peroxide do you use? Is this nebulized? And is this food grade peroxide? TIA.

Replied by Rick

Restaurant grade, 1 tablespoon to 10 tablespoons of filtered water, not tap water. Google Dr circus and asthma

H2O2 Inhalation Therapy
Posted by Sweetberry (Ny) on 01/14/2012
3 out of 5 stars

Worked Temporarily

Started out fghp 3 percent last sunday. It killed me till now- the mucus was together and came up very good and controlled. Now it became runny and sitting in my lung and maxair and nebulizer will not help. Help- what went wrong? I better w/h the fghp now I can't breath got runny nose and fever I have 12 children can't afford this.

Replied by Sweetberry
5 out of 5 stars

WoW WoW WoW!!!!!! I would like to take the time and thank bill and earth clinic for fghp it help to heal my asthma which I suffered 32 years!! Yes!! Its a long story I can write a book on all what I went through if an author will contact me. I am willing to work it out- it may be a best seller no doubt.
Now a quick few words look at My last weeks post where I cry for help the fghp not working I stopped the process and felt it fake as all my life I find gimmicks and you can't trust but I didn't give up due to which I saw that many testimonies I didn't give up. I called bill munro- he is very nice and told me not to use the nebulizer just the spray pump I went and bought it two days ago and this is the first night after 32 years I slept 7h one shot, no medications needed! So thanks I hope this will last. I don't take any supplements I eat my diet reg. Food and all ok if you need further
Advice you can e mail me [email protected] Com

H2O2 Inhalation Therapy
Posted by Susan (Inland Empire, Ca) on 04/09/2009
5 out of 5 stars

My 10yr old son who wheezes with breathing in cold air had an attack and seemed to worsen as the day progressed. Labored breathing with wheezing sounds,scary. I already had a nebulizer machine in the house from years past using albuterol mixtures. I placed about 1/3 cup of water in a separate container and one drop of 35% food grade H202. Stirred it and then filled to capacity the nebulizer holding cup. After about 20 minutes he seemed to breath alot easier but not 100% to normal. He slept for an hour then was able to get up and guess what? No heavy breathing! A little wheezing but not as much as before. I was hesitant to try the H2O2 as so many precautions and warnings. I'm glad I only put one drop into a separate container with more water. One drop in the nebulizer cup (about 2 tablespoons capacity) would have been way too much.

H2O2 Inhalation Therapy
Posted by Marci (Wilmington, NC) on 04/16/2008
5 out of 5 stars

I was desperate to find something other than my rescue inhalers (7-8x/day), steriods, Adviar, Singulair, Albuterol nebulizer and whatever else I've tried throughout the 11 years since I was diagnosed with severe asthma and allergies.

I recently quit my job because my attacks had gotten so bad, I couldn't function. No health insurance, no money, I had to rely on friends' prescriptions, samples and $4 drugs from Walmart.

I found this just yesterday and tried the HP therapy in my nebulizer. INSTANLY no more wheezing - no more coughing! I was sure I had gone nuts. I got my first solid night's sleep in ages! I woke up this morning feeling better than I had in years. I will do it again every 2 hours and see how I am tomorrow, but this is so encouraging.

Thank you so much for this site. I will read everything I can find. I hope it lasts.

Replied by Coleyearth
(Marysville, Wa, Usa)
3 out of 5 stars

Better But With Side Effects

I have had a good experience with h202. I inhale it when I feel tightness in my chest and instantly feel improvement. However, the first symptom I experience is feeling fog headed. I difficulty finding words in conversation. This bothers me more than anything is this a symptom of asthma. I don't have attacks, I have wheezing and congestion at times.