Table of Contents
- QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
- POPULAR REMEDIES
- Cayenne Tips
- Acid Reflux Connection
- ACV and Cayenne
- ACV and Raspberry Tea
- ACV, Baking Soda, Cayenne
- Antiseptic Mouthwash
- Apple Cider Vinegar
- Apple Cider Vinegar, Cayenne
- Apple Cider Vinegar, Hydrogen Peroxide
- Aspirin Tea
- Aspirin, Salt, Baking Soda
- Baked Lemon and Olive Oil
- Baking Soda
- Black Currants
- Black Pepper
- Black Tea
- Carrot Juice
- Castor Oil Packs
- Cayenne and Blood Thinning
- Cayenne and Garlic
- Cayenne Pepper Recipes
- Cayenne Tips
- Cayenne, Salt, Lemon
- Chicken Soup
- Coconut Oil
- Coconut, Turmeric, Pepper
- Cod Liver Oil
- Corn Liquor and Lemon Juice
- Dietary Changes
- Epsom Salts
- Eucalyptus Oil
- General Feedback
- Grapefruit Seed Extract
- Hand Therapy
- Haritaki Powder
- Homemade Remedy
- Hot Liquids
- Hot Sauce
- Hot Tea
- Hydrogen Peroxide
- Hyssop Tea
- Icy Hot
- Iodine Painting
- Lemon and Garlic
- Lemon Juice and Sea Salt
- Manuka Honey
- Miso Soup
- Multiple Remedies
- Myrrh Gargle
- Olive Oil
- Oregano Oil
- Oregano Oil, Tamari Soy Sauce
- Over the Counter
- Peanut Butter
- Pear Juice
- Pickle Juice Brine
- Pineapple Juice
- Remedies Needed
- Rubbing Alcohol
- Salt Water
- Salt Water Gargle
- Slippery Elm
- Spearmint Oil
- Stop Talking
- Tabasco Sauce
- Tea Tree Oil
- Ted's Remedy Feedback
- Tomato Paste
- Tomato Tea
- Tongue Stretch
- Tonic Water
- Turmeric, Salt
- Urine Therapy
- Vicks Vapor Rub
- Vinegar, Salt, Pepper
- Vitamin C
- Whiskey, Honey, Lemon
- White Pepper
- Wild Cherry Bark
02/05/2013: Dara from Los Angeles, Ca: "I've used Cayenne for about 5 years for my sore throats but I use liquid and the little bits don't get caught in my throat I dont have to wait for it to disolve and it is a much more pleasant experience. Hope this helps. For..."
Our readers offer information and opinions on Earth Clinic, not as a substitute for professional medical prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. Please consult with your physician, pharmacist, or health care provider before taking any home remedies or supplements or following any treatment suggested by anyone on this site. Only your health care provider, personal physician, or pharmacist can provide you with advice on what is safe and effective for your unique needs or diagnose your particular medical history.
|Apple Cider Vinegar||139 YEAS|
|ACV and Cayenne||55 YEAS|
|Pickle Juice Brine||33 YEAS|
|Salt Water Gargle||25 YEAS|
|Cayenne Pepper Recipes||23 YEAS|
|Hydrogen Peroxide||21 YEAS|
|Tabasco Sauce||20 YEAS|
|Hot Sauce||14 YEAS|
|Iodine Painting||14 YEAS|
|Hot Tea||8 YEAS|
|Vicks Vapor Rub||6 YEAS|
|Hand Therapy||6 YEAS|
|Oregano Oil||5 YEAS|
Cayenne Pepper Sore Throat Remedy
Home Remedy Ingredients:
- Cayenne Pepper - 1 Teaspoon
- Warm Water - Small Glass
Far and away the most popular sore throat remedy. Add a teaspoon of powdered cayenne pepper to a glass of warm water and repeatedly gargle with it. Sore throat pain vanishes, and other cold-like symptoms improve as well! (If your lips are raw, put on a little chapstick first to protect them.)
EC Contributor Instructions:
Penny from Fresno, California: "If it is too late, as in strep, it takes gargling with cayenne in water every fifteen minutes until it goes, and be patient, because it GOES. I haven't had a sore throat take hold in 15 years or more, though many have tried to start up, which also is a way for many illnesses to sprout. I generally will gargle cayenne in water at whatever strength I like and do it as much as I can until I tire of it, and then repeat every fifteen minutes, each time swallowing a tiny bit real slowly (not necessary). It only stings the tongue a little when spitting out, otherwise, no discomfort, you can get used to even the swallowing part when you see how well it works. I use the cheap Mexican stuff, but also keep on hand in refrigerator the pesticide free stuff from health store. Cayenne is a miracle cure for ulcers and so many other conditions, plus aids assimilation of nutrients and vitamins. I will keep cayenne in water in the bathroom in case I get up in the night, so I can gargle once in the night if I am very sick, but if it is in water, it will go bad quickly and needs to be put back in refridge in morning. Afterwards suck on a clove (see below). I have never seen a sore throat that won't succumb to it."
EC TIP: DON'T STOP TAKING THE CAYENNE!
Cayenne doesn't always work within the first hour or two. If you've had a sore throat for days, you will need to keep up the gargling for at least one day if not two. Your lingering sore throat will disappear. Many of the folks who reported a NAY rating in the Cayenne section are reporting negative results after a very short period of time.
[YEA] 05/29/2012: Cath from Ottawa, On, Canada: "I just had to give it one more YEA vote in case it helps give even one more person the relief it gave me. THANK YOU!"
[YEA] 05/25/2012: Tyler from Wylie, Texas: "I have suffered for about one year with a indescribable discomfort/throbbing pain on one side of my tongue. I have visited a few different doctors who could not find anything wrong with me. Anyone going through this same kind of thing has probably had the same horrible fears and emotions I have - worrying that it might be something serious such as cancer.
Two days ago I decided to use cayenne pepper as a mouthwash for a sore throat. Not only is my sore throat cured, but the tongue pain goes away for hours after using it. It does not just improve - the pain completely dissipates. Even opiate painkillers do not provide relief like this.
Here is what I do: I put one-half of a teaspoon of very hot cayenne pepper into a mouthful (2 tablespoons) of warm water. I then rinse my mouth, thoroughly, and gargle deep into the back of my throat, for about two minutes. This burns intensely the first few times.
After two minutes I spit and rinse my mouth out with water. The tongue pain worsens for about two minutes, and then goes away, completely, for several hours. Each time I go back and rinse with more cayenne, the pain goes away for a longer period of time. I have a feeling that this is somehow improving the blood flow into the tiny blood vessels in the tongue and soon I might be entirely cured.
Another thing I have done differently is I have started to brush with a little bit of coconut oil twice a day. It's very moisturizing to your oral tissue. Anyone suffering from burning tongue issues probably chews on their tongue or rubs it against their teeth, which is a constant source of irritation. The coconut oil helps soothe the irritation to a degree.
Anyway, give cayenne a shot. You have to do it regularly, but it's incredible and I feel like I have my life back. For the first time in a year I have been able to enjoy the day without constantly thinking about my tongue.
P.S. - Burning Mouth disorder has been known to drive people to insanity and even suicide. This is a serious problem and a serious source of constant pain, discomfort and irritation which can cause serious depression. If cayenne seems to be working for you, leave a reply to help others learn about this cure."
05/25/2012: Wplush from Honolulu, Hi replies: "Did you try ACV for your BMS? Where can you get Cayenne Pepper? Do you have any other problems such as digestive or skin issues? Is the Cayenne still working for you?"
05/25/2012: Tyler from Wylie, Texas replies: "You can get Cayenne pepper at most grocery stores - it's sold in the spice aisle. If given the choice between "mild" and "hot, " always pick the hot. In fact, get the spiciest type available. I have used ACV for about a year. It only seemed to help my BMS for about a week, although it does have a positive effect on the emotions and depression involved with BMS.
I used to suffer from very bad acne and took accutane (regret that decision). I have, basically, perfect skin now aside from freckles.
The cayenne is still working. I only have to use it about once a day now, and the degree of my BMS weakens each day. My life is great again for the first time in a year. I think many people suffering from this condition might be skeptical or think I'm crazy, but the cayenne really works wonders for me for this issue.
Again, the first day I had to take it every few hours. Now I only have to do it once per day. The cayenne has so many benefits anyway that I would use it even if I didn't have BMS - it's good for your gums and oral tissue because it stimulates blood flow to the area."
05/28/2012: Mama T from Sparks, Nv replies: "For years I have suffered from geographic tongue and sores on my tongue. Reactions to foods, white coating, sores that look like ringworm, cracks, and sometimes bleeding. Several years ago I started taking Enduracin, slow release niacin that is encapsulated in parafin so it won't cause the hot flashes. My husband takes it to lower his cholesterol, one before every meal. I started taking one 250mg per night as a B12 supplement. After a few weeks I noticed that my tongue was not hurting anymore! It was a healthy color and no cracks. There have been a few times when I have gone without taking it for a few days and my old symptoms return quickly. It is especially noticable if I am traveling and don't bring along my supplements and I eat out and my tongue will flare up at the restaurant making it very uncomfortable to even eat and the symtoms will last all night and cracks start to appear. I am thankful that I realized what the solution was so I can share it with you!"
[YEA] 06/12/2012: October from Berea, Oh replies: "I don't know what I have, it seems like allergies because it happens seasonal or so. It started with watery eyes and a dry scratchy throat. I took it easy and managed to keep those feelings at bay then I woke up in the middle of the night with my throat a little more scratchy & a bit sore. I got up and immediately started in on the warm salt water and I've been trying to fight it off that way. Last night I lost the battle and my throat was really bad this morning and relief lasted briefly even with hot tea.
I came here and saw this post so I tried it. I have rinsed twice now only to follow these suggestions and I feel like I will be fine at least a few hours. I will probably do it twice more this evening and try to drink as much water as possible. I know haven't had enough water and that doesn't help. Need to keep the tissues lubricated. I hope it goes away soon because I am in no mood to wait this out... Thanks for the suggestions! In the least I will settle for relief, I feel much better now : )"
[YEA] 04/22/2012: Anon from Tel Aviv, Israel: "Cayenne for sore throat worked perfect for me. Thanks"Replies
[YEA] 05/10/2012: Enfinite5 from Orange County, Ca replies: "SAVED THE DAY! Wow im blown away that this worked.... My throat was KILLING ME! Hurt so bad, felt like I swallowed a cheese grater. I kept using throat lozenges but they make me feel sick and only temporally fix the problem. So I saw all the posts on here and thought I would give it a try.... I gargled and swallowed a little bit of the cayenne pepper and water through out the day and it instantly took away the pain and the next morning woke up completely better!"
[YEA] 03/02/2012: Jaime from Sunnyvale, Ca: "Honestly I had doubts about this but some many people recommended this that I tried it and it literally to less then a minute go the pain to go away and less the 30 minutes for me to be completely rid of my sore throat. thank you all for this remedy."Replies
[YEA] 03/07/2012: Krista from Wolcott, Ct replies: "I occasionally get those horribly painful sore throats where I feel like my throat is swollen way in the back- maybe my tonsils. I usually suffer through it, but the last time I had one, I was staying with a friend and she made me a mixture of hot water, lemon juice, maple syrup (she didn't have honey), and cayenne pepper. There was so much relief from it! The relief didn't last very long after I finished drinking it, though (maybe 20-30 minutes). I believe it shortened the time of my sore throat, though. I was also alternating that with gargling salt water.
Today I woke up with a sore throat and at lunch time I went to the store to get lemons, honey, and cayenne pepper. I've drunk two mugs of it (one whole lemon's worth) so far. The first time I put too much cayenne pepper in it. You really only have to put in enough so that you feel a tingle in your throat but not a burning. I'm not sure if it's all due to the cayenne pepper. It might be the combination with the lemon and the honey. But it really does work."
04/04/2012: Alecia from Saskatoon, Saskatchewan replies: "How much of everything are you supposed to put for the hot water, lemon juice, honey(maple syrup), and cayenne? I would like to try this but don't want to end up more sick than I started :)"
09/08/2012: Marianne from Los Angeles, Ca replies: "Have the same question as Alecia. How much of everything do we use?"
[YEA] 02/23/2012: Barb from Waterford, Mi: "I was suffering from a severe sore throat and was willing to try anything to relieve it... Even water was torturous to drink... So I tried cayenne pepper every 15 min. for an hour as suggested. Each time was extremely painful as I gargled with it and for about 30 seconds afterward... It offered about the same relief as a saltwater gargle after that. I kept it up for a day and did not experience any healing from it.... Don't put yourself through the agony of the gargle... it's gonna take a few days to get better inspite of anything you do."Replies
[NAY] 02/29/2012: Sickly from Los Angeles, Ca replies: "Did not work for me, my throat burns really badly, not strep, no fever, but so much pain in my throat and congestion in head. I tried this last night and today, it did not work. I did the amounts mentioned here with warm water and poured it into the back of my throat and gargled 15 seconds, repeated until I finished the glasses. It felt better for a few minutes, which happens when I gargle with hot salt water anyways, and then mostly my mouth just hurt from the spice and my throat is still in the same amount of pain. It did not help for more than a few minutes, even gargling a glass every 15 minutes for an hour didn't do anything besides clear up my sinuses for a bit."
05/23/2012: Chloe from Rochester, Nh, Us replies: "While possibly an effective method for curing sore throats due to colds, etc. , I would NOT recommend this to anyone who suffers from soreness due to something like chronic tonsilitis. For a condition such as this, the cayenne acts purely as an irritant."
[YEA] 02/10/2012: Saskia from ..., New York : "I tried this concotion immediatly, warming up some water and getting out a little shaker of cayenne. At first when I tried it, it didn't work at all. I thought that I was just one of the few with bad luck. But after it didn't work just gargling it, I decided to just add a little honey to the water and pepper mix and just sip it. It still didn't seem to work. Then I coughed and realized, "Hey! That doesn't hurt!" Already my throat is feeling better and I've only been sipping for an half an hour or so. I definitely recommed this to anyone with a sore throat, It works great!"
[NAY] 02/04/2012: Someone from Somewhere, Magic Fairy Land: "DO NOT USE!!!!! I tried this, with warm water and about a tsp of cayenne, and now not only does my throat hurt more than it did before, but my mouth is on fire too!!!!! Once again I repeat, DO NOT USE!!"Replies
03/16/2012: Cory from Oakville, Washington replies: "Anyone who puts a teaspoon of cayenne pepper in a cup of water will most definitely feel like dying! I put a teaspoon of cayenne pepper in my taco recipe and with a pound of meat, it was still too hot! For those who try the cayenne, which really does work for most people, if done right, please, please use the cayenne SPARINGLY! I am talking like a tiny sprinkle to start, so you hardly even taste or feel anything!!
That said, my favorite remedy depends on what sounds the best at the moment. Hot water with cayenne and a dash of apple cider vinegar, hot water with lots of lemon and some honey, dill pickle brine... Also, the different remedies seem to work best when paired with the "right" sore throat. In other words, the reason I have the sore throat may be different from one time to the next (a cold, strep, just a post nasal drip without the cold... ) and sometimes one remedy works better than another. I haven't figured out what remedy goes with what cause, but who cares, as long as I can get rid of the sore throat!"
[YEA] 11/04/2012: James from London, United Kingdom replies: "Cayenne pepper not only cured my sore throat and cough it also cleared up an ear infection that antibiotics could not. Again thanks"
[YEA] 11/17/2012: Ann from Oakland, Ca, Usa replies: "After suffering for four days with each day being worse than the last I finally got the nerve to try the cayenne pepper. I had tried the apple vinegar cider and the warm salt water gargle - both somewhat soothing but still leaving me miserable. There is a bad viral infection going around and I had talked to a few people who had similar experience and they said the sore throat lasted for up to two weeks. My throat was swollen along with tongue and had pain along jawline and neck. Also had earache on occasion. I already had the pepper flakes but decided to buy the powdered cayenne pepper. Read several of the recipes but went with 1/4 teaspoon to 1/2 cup of very warm water. Coated my lips with vaseline as someone recommended and gargled twice for about a minute each time. Yes it burns! However, after about two minutes you can feel it working. I gargled with the mixture about every 30 to 45 minutes for the evening. This morning I woke up and the swelling had decreased. It still hurts to swallow but not near as much. Teeth, jaw, sinus and tongue no longer ache. I want to post to let others know the misery can be reduced and almost eliminated with the cayenne pepper gargle."
[WORKED TEMPORARILY] 12/29/2011: Nikoo from Chronic Coast, California Usa: "I dont like doctors/hospitals and avoid at all costs. I have had a terrible misreable sore throat for almost a week. Felt like daggers when I swallowed.
Tried Cayenne pepper in warm water, cayenne in tea w lemon and honey, cayenne on my mashed potatoes, ACV cayenne lemon honey in hot water -- NOTHING WORKED. I had temporary relieve but sore throat would just not vanish. I think the remedies helped because I was hacking up all kinds of mucus but the pain did not go away. So finally as a last resort I went to see a doctor and she told me I had strep throat -- unfortantly this homeopathic cure could not overcome that kind of infection.
So I rate this remedy as a Kind of worked/temporary relief.
Will try again if I get a sore throat and post results then."Replies
[WORKED TEMPORARILY] 01/04/2012: Davers84 from Mattoon, Il replies: "I have to admit I'm a bit surprised this was going to even work. But after reading all these responses, I figured the worst that would happen was I was going to throw up (which didn't happen). This remedy worked for me for about 6 hours. My throat has been like daggers though for the past 5 days, so it may be more sore than most that have been using this. However, it did numb the pain for some time and I was able to eat comfortably.
It did come back later though. And gargling more pepper water didn't do the trick. Since I was unable to eat a normal meal, I went out and bought two big cans of chicken noodle soup. I had always heard to eat this stuff when you are feeling sick. And I have to say, this worked better than the pepper water. I ate both cans (that's A LOT of soup but it worked for me) and more throat feels like it's back to normal and it's been about 8 hours now. Guess I'll find out tomorrow morning if it comes back or not.
So the cayenne pepper water does work, but only as a temporary relief for me. I can see it working for a minor sore throat completely though :)"
[YEA] 12/24/2011: Jufycoop from Mahwah, Nj, Usa: "I had sinus surgery 5 days ago and woke up from recovery with severe throat trauma from the intubation. My uvula was swollen to 4 times it's normal size, was covered with a white film, and the back of my throat felt like it had been sliced with razors. The sore throat pain has been so bad I could not eat, drink or even swallow saliva without tears. When I went to my first post- op visit yesterday, the Dr said the trauma will heal on its own and there was nothing that could be done. I found this website and believed from the other posts that the cayenne gargle could work for me. I tried 1/4 t cayenne, 1/4 t salt, a little honey and warm water and gargled 6 times over a half hour. The pain subsided enough for me to eat small salad!! I just gargled again 2 times and looked at the uvula, which is shrinking! Thank you everyone for your posts."Replies
09/08/2012: Zertu from Multicultural Paradise, Ct replies: "Work wonders, I gargled 3 times for 1 minute. I used a quarter of a tbsp, a lot of lemon juice and a hint of salt. All a small glass of warm water I. E. like 2shots quantity..."
[YEA] 12/22/2011: Clorenita from Washington, Nj: "I have a bad strep throat, already on antibiotics but still wasnt able to eat. It was painful until I found this remedy on this site. I warm water in a coffe cup and added a tsb of the cayenne pepper. Half an hour later I was able to eat my lunch!!!"Replies
12/22/2011: Donald from Mount Sterling, Oh Usa replies: "Will Cayenne pepper capsules cure the sore throat? Can you take the medicine out of the capsules and mix with water and drink it that way? Or gargle with it?"
12/23/2011: Francisca from Zug, Zug, Switzerland replies: "Donald, cayenne pepper in the capsules must be the same you use in the kitchen, it is not a medicine as such! You can buy the powder in the supermarket or in an Indian shop, for example, and it will cost a lot less! Be careful taking those capsules as when you take the powder, or better, mix it with your food your stomach is already expecting it when it goes down as it felt the heat first in the mouth. If you take the capsule the stomach gets a punch when it finally arrives and that can leave you feeling really bad!"
12/24/2011: Kat from Comox, Bc replies: "I also have used cayenne. I found out it is best and recommended to pre mix the powder in warm water and drink, this way you avoid any stomach issues from a capsules dissolving in the stomach. It has so many uses... There's a book called " Left For Dead ' -anyone who is having heart issues, it's a great read."
[YEA] 12/20/2011: Macadi from Memphis, Tn: "Wow, I gargled with just plain cayenne pepper and I could feel the burn in my throat and all the way up to my eardrums, I think! Felt good like I was burning out some really bad germs! I refused to rinse anything except my tongue. I feel a lot better already and am going to do it again before I go to bed. History: had this sore throat and post nasal drip for 2 weeks now (plus really bad cold/virus symptoms on top of it). Not strep."Replies
[YEA] 12/21/2011: Brian from Totowa, Nj replies: "Tried the Cayenne and warm water gargle this morning and it was great. It's hot on the tongue but it goes away, thanks for the tip."
[YEA] 06/03/2012: Matt from Melbourne, Australia replies: "Amazing stuff, provided all most instant relief! I use to gargle alcohols which seem to work as well. But this seems to have done the trick! Thanks internet!"
[YEA] 12/15/2011: Molly from Fort Lauderdale, Fl: "I am a singer, and after a four hour rehearsal last night I woke at 1:30 in the morning with an excruciatingly sore throat. It felt like there was broken glass in there, and I could barely swallow my own saliva. In desperation (because I have another rehearsal tonight! ), I found this site and ran down to the kitchen to try it. After gargling a cup of warm water with 1 tsp. Cayenne and 1/2 tsp. Sea salt, I felt so much better I went back to sleep. When I woke up a few hours later, my sore throat was 85% gone so I gargled again, and it's pretty much entirely gone now. I'm going to gargle with cayenne water after every strenuous rehearsal from now on! Thanks so much!"Replies
03/16/2012: Queenvashti40 from Rock Hill, Sc replies: "I wish I would have read this two days ago. This remedy WORKS!!!! The worst part is the mild burning on the tongue and lips... Keep in mind I'm the exception; I eat absolutely NO hot or spicy foods. Give this a try and save yourself a copay and reduce the time you're in pain!!!"
[YEA] 11/26/2011: Miki from Laporte, Indiana: "One and a half hours ago. My husband read on your site about cayenne for sore throat. I was desperate for relief. I have used 2 teaspoon of cayenne to a cup of water every 15 minutes wow I am about 90% better already. Thanks to all who submitted this."Replies
[YEA] 12/02/2011: Shelaine from Vancouver, Washington replies: "Ok, this is working for me so far... Just tried it with 1t. In 8oz warm water. Did the gargle/swallowing the spit method. My only little issue is now my lips are on fire! I recommend some lip balm/petro jelly on thick before the gargle if your lips are sensitive or chapped."
[YEA] 12/10/2011: Rachel from Bexley, Ohio replies: "The first time I tried gargling with cayenne pepper and water was two years ago when I had the worst sore throat of my life. It was 10 days. The doctor gave me antibiotics for strep throat even though the rapid strep test came back negative because she thought that it HAD to be strep. Well, it wasn't. The antibiotics did nothing, and my sore throat went on. It was difficult to sleep, to swallow, to eat. It felt like I had an open cut in my mouth--I'm not sure how to describe it. I was up in the middle of the night and found this site. I immediately tried it, and amazingly, it was the one gargle--the one thing--that brought me any relief. I kept doing it--and trying to let the pepper water get as low in my throat as I could. I would inhale the pepper sometimes and choke and spit it all out, but I was right at the kitchen sink and bound and determined to get rid of the pain. No exaggeration--within 1 day of gargling--the pain was gone. Not diminished--but gone. Now this time around when I got a killer sore throat, the only thing I'm using to gargle is cayenne pepper. I just warm up a glass of water and add as much cayenne as it can handle. I keep swirling it around to keep it from settling. The burn goes into a tingle and into a numbing. I love it. Such relief. Yeah, cayenne pepper!!"
12/12/2011: Jamr from Fort Polk, Louisiana replies: "Can I use chili powder in place of cayenne?"
[YEA] 11/22/2011: Davemomusic from Philadelphia, Pa: "I know I'm one more log on the fire for Cayenne but as a singer with a gig coming up, it was really important to me to get rid of my sore throat. I tried the whiskey and that numbed my throat but it didn't cure it, and I didn't want to repeat it because even with the gargle, I found it went in through my mouth's pores (slight buzz). So I tried gargling the cayenne, but I really think that the drinking of the cayenne was the best. I ended up putting it in my water bottle and drinking it throughout the day. What it did best was open my throat temporarily and clear my sinuses. As the post-nasal drip disappeared, so did the sore throat. It also helped as I was teaching too. I was able to be my normal volume without losing my voice. Started drinking it Wednesday night and through Friday, by the time of the gig, I was great! Oh, and the name-brand stuff worked just fine for me."