Pain
Natural Remedies

Chronic Pain Remedies

Collagen and Keratin Capsules
Posted by Janine (Wellington, NZ ) on 08/11/2008
5 out of 5 stars

I have been taking Collagen/Keratin capsules for 2 weeks. I started taking these as a possible cure for neck pain which i have suffered from for years. I developed Sjogrens syndrome 2 years ago as a result of a nasty virus I had. I have had the dry mouth which has affected the linings of my mouth and caused bad breath. In the last year I also had dry gritty eyes, and dry vagina. After two weeks on the collagen/keratin capsules I now have saliva in my mouth! My eyes and vagina are improving with moisture too. And yes my Neck pain has practically dissappeared. Hope someone else might find this cure works for them too!!


Castor Oil
Posted by Al (Collinsville, IL) on 06/13/2008
5 out of 5 stars

Castor Oil & Pain:
Call it what you wish, Voodoo, Witchcraft, "BS", whatever, but it DID work for me. Having recently torn the cartilage in my left knee, simultaneously diagnosed "with a little arthritis" in the same, and swelling behind the knee. My Sport's Ortho said that the swelling was common with the torn cartilage but should go down in time. I began searching on the Web for a magical pain relief remedy (other than my already supplementation of Glucosamine Sulfate, Chondrotin, Taurine, Collagen, HA, Cats Claw, Bromelain, MSM, etc., etc., etc - .all of which I have been taking for years due to 27 yrs of cycling but at almost 68yo, something had to give). One subject that kept surfacing on the Searches was an old time remedy of Castor Oil. I'm not in terrible pain, but it is a 24/7 aggravation, as anyone who has similar discomforts can attest to. I decided to give it a try; purchased a package of ladies' cosmetic, cleansing pads (~3"x4") and a small bottle of Castor Oil (CO), I placed a pad on a saucer, saturated the pad with CO (not dripping) and popped it into the microwave for about 35 secs. I, then placed the (105F) warm pad on my knee; wrapped my knee-pad with plastic wrap (to keep the CO from staining the heating pad) and then applied a heating pad, set to Med. heat. I left it on for about 1 hour and when I removed everything, I did a "test walk" -not only was my knee not stiff, and the swelling was 95% GONE!! I could walk with 100% less discomfort and this was 10x more effective than the Cortisone or three Hydraluronic Acid injections I had received in a two months period. The other nice thing, is that you don't have to throw the saturated pad away; place in a Ziploc bag for the next application and just add a little more CO.

I generally apply this treatment daily, each time the knee feels better - I know it's not going to remedy the situation 100%, but has made my life much better.


Activated Charcoal
Posted by Lauren (Brooklyn, NY) on 02/13/2008
5 out of 5 stars

I had a miscarriage and inflamation developed in my uterus as a result. I was unable to stand or walk for mor than 10 minutes. The pain in my lower back and pelvic area was excrutiating. I used 1 tbs of charcoal in a glass of warm water every morining and night for 10 days. The inflamation and the pain were gone by the end of the program.


Apple Cider Vinegar and Baking Soda
Posted by Steve (Victoria BC, Canada) on 12/06/2007
5 out of 5 stars

Hi everyone at earthclinic! I am a 60 year male. I found your site after a search for arthritis and natural cures. I started taking the ACV and BS two months ago. It has significantly reduced the pain and swelling between my knuckles. My hips and knee pain are getting better and the food taste better as well. My energy has increased and I am not napping as much. I don't feel as cold anymore and no more shivers in bed. It has also helped my wife with her knees. I can't thank you enough for your wonderful natural cure. I almost got sold on the Swedish joint pain formula but I' found your site and I am now saving my much needed money. Now I am going to start using the H202 inhalation method and I will let you know how that turns out.You are on my 649 list and you can hold me to that.


Blackstrap Molasses
Posted by Frankie (Franklin, Louisiana) on 08/10/2007
5 out of 5 stars

I am new to using BSM...4 weeks ago had an MRI which showed I had a torn meniscus in the right knee, along with arthritis. Orth doctor said at this time, there is no need for surgery. He recommended I take 500mg of calcium a day to help heal the knee and help the bones. This got me very down because I am very active. I was not going to wait around so a friend in Ca. said how BSM was good for tons of things. I found Earth Clinic and I referred to it several times. I LOVE to research and research. Living in Louisiana, we have many sugar cane mills. I found thru friends a gallon of BSM from the mill. And OH YES.....it is nasty. BUT, every morning I take a Tablespoon right down....no time to play with mixing it in anything. I have been taking BSM for 3 weeks now. This I have noticed and right away. Although active, I was tired everyday......everyday. I ate right but was still tired....NOT ANYMORE......trust me on this one.....I saw the surgeron last week and he commented on how the leg was easy to move and how I was coming along so well. He commented on how I was very up beat and was even losing weight....for some reason I am not hungry all the time. I need to lose some weight to help the knees and I feel that the BSM has come to my rescue....We all know that it takes time for many remedies or meds. to help in various health issues. As I have researched on BSM, it can only benefit you and not harm. My husband began to take it daily also. He has been dealing with hip pain for the last 3 years..bursitus...in the last 3 weeks he has seen a difference. He also has more energy. I will keep you informed of our progress.

Baking Soda
Posted by Edward D. (East Tawas, Mi) on 08/29/2018
5 out of 5 stars

Arm and Hammer baking soda for pain. .....

I take 1 teaspoon in the morning, noon, night with 8 oz of water mix well until glass is clear. If. I have pain I add the same dosage every two hours.

Turmeric Pain Paste
Posted by Michael (New Zealand) on 01/05/2017

Hi there folks! Good New Year so far then? That's the ticket!

SO ....Turmeric powder, Black Pepper and EITHER Grape Seed oil OR Coconut oil and Water mixed together. Then gently heated up in a ceramic bowl till it forms a paste, allow to cool and smear on the annoying, affected part. That was what I was told to do for PAIN a good while ago but what are the amounts please? Was wondering if this one could be good for the Dreaded Bursitis also (now that's Painful)!

Thanks in anticipation for the correct quantities. Also, would one substitute Cayenne Pepper for Black Pepper or does it matter? So many questions...so little time...so little ready cash... so much to do!? Thank God for E.C. eh?

Cheers, Michael

Turmeric Pain Paste
Posted by Michael (New Zealand) on 01/06/2017

Well that is terrific Mama to Many. I was hoping you would reply. Your asset is knowing BOTH what to do and how to do it and explaining both parts so well. Oh dear that's three parts! However... I had been led to believe by my Japanese friend that the heating things up bit was an important component of the therapy . Much like those "Teas" that require you to "steep" them for a while for maximum efficacy or even some of your brews that require a period of standing / absorbing to work most effectively. We may benefit by allowing the chemistry to strut its stuff for a while prior to ingesting some of these substances possibly? Will keep you posted on progress if I gain any wisdom worth imparting! Thoughts on this? Cheers, and thanks again, Michael


Turmeric Pain Paste
Posted by Michael (New Zealand) on 01/07/2017

This Turmeric conversation is fascinating me. I initially commenced taking Turmeric for pain by scattering the powder on my evening meal but after simply ages (weeks and weeks) of doing this I was getting no tangible results. I consciously commence remedies by taking small doses anyway but I was under-doing it obviously. One simply cannot get enough Turmeric that way. Next, we chucked some Turmeric powder into our rice at every meal consisting of rice (my Wife loves potatoes and I prefer rice), so that all our rice dishes and meals became so yellow that I thought all rice was naturally yellow after a while! Still nothing on the pain front....

Then I was told by my erstwhile Japanese friend to boil some water and then simmer the water with a teaspoon of Turmeric and one teaspoon of Ginger in it for ten minutes or so before letting it cool and consuming the filtered concoction with some honey to taste.

A posting on this Site claims that this dilutes the potency of the Turmeric rather than enhancing it. Rather than taking the Turmeric tablets, I shall persist with trying to find a palatable way of getting the benefits of the Turmeric Powder internally if I can. Am I complicating things un-necessarily I wonder? The tablet takers don't worry about the taste then? The boiling and steeping and standing of things interests me anyway.... as an aside! Increases potency or decreases potency? Someone should write the manual on this. I thought the "fillers" might make the tabs more "full" than the actual Turmeric - hence the quest to go "Au natural". More bang for my buck. I'm a bit of a scrooge that way: possibly to my detriment! However, I am taking a Multi-Vitamin, MSM, and Alfalfa tablets, alkalizing and oil pulling with Coconut oil. Also Ted's Borax regime for a few weeks now five days per week. We hope for progress but I have endured this malady for a few years now so, as one of our actresses famously said many years ago, "It won't happen over night but it will happen".

Cheers, Michael


Siphoning Energy Technique
Posted by Mary Beth (Pittsburgh) on 09/18/2016
5 out of 5 stars

To alieve pain from a burn, a technique called siphoning. Put your left hand (it must be the LEFT hand) -- on, over, or near the site of a burn. In my case, it was three square inches of a burn from boiling liquid. Then I put my RIGHT hand in a position that was below the left hand, on the right side of my body. In less than a minute, the pain from the burn lessened -- and was largely gone in a few more minutes. I learned this in an energy medicine class and from my Eden energy practitioner. I was amazed at how prompt the healing was in this instance.


Anti-inflammatory Turmeric Elixir
Posted by Om (Hope, Bc, Canada) on 04/11/2015
5 out of 5 stars

I am quite amazed. I have been taking Turmeric for umpteen years but now that an old injury started to cause bad pain from hip to ankle and did not go away, I found a very tasty drink which made it disappear. I had to repeat it about three days after the first drink. It is so good tasting and healthy --- so here it is:

  • 3" piece root of ginger or 2 tblsp. powder.
  • The root can be juiced or slices simmered for short time in a very small amount of water.
  • 4" piece of turmeric root OR 2 tsp. powder.
  • Juice of 3 lemons, organic if possible and utilize the skin for other uses.
  • dash cayenne
  • 4 cups coconut water. Watch what quality
  • Raw honey to taste, not heated but warmed in a small glass inside a pot with warm water off the heat.

Store in fridge up to three days.

This is a refreshing drink. But any similar drink with turmeric will be good, too.

MahaNarayan oil on alternative days will also help a great deal for treatment of pain.

Namaste, Om

Coconut Oil and Charcoal
Posted by Charity (Faithville, Us) on 02/24/2015
5 out of 5 stars

Healing PORES on bottom of feet....Y E S, Amen!

I got the large bandaids( that have the tape part all around the edges of the cloth part) and put coconut oil on the cotton part and sprinkled activated charcoal powder on top of the oil and put on bottoms of my feet and went to bed. I also ate a capsule of activated charcoal at bedtime for a couple weeks.

In the morning all the pain in my feet I had for over a year was gone and that was three weeks ago and it hasn't returned. Ankles feel so nice now. They were miserable

Hallelu Yah


Bill's Remedies
Posted by Dave (Fountain Inn, Sc) on 03/29/2014

Hello Bill,

I have a similar hip issue; mine is related to pelvis shift problem. I have some scoliosis and the lower back is turned a bit and also the pelvis. So my problem is skeletal basically. My right leg, back side of leg above knee, if I've been driving in my car for a while starts aching, something like a cramp but not a cramping; just aching...like it needs stretching. Well, that's what helps. I do a lot of "karate" styled stretching. The more I do, the less the problem manifests itself.

Don't mean to say this is your problem; I'm just playing off your issue for anyone out there who might have similar issues...to add to the index of possibilities.

By the way, I love how you list the nutritional items in your post and then describe what that nutrient does. Your posts are always so informative.


Bill's Remedies
Posted by Bill (San Fernando, Philippines) on 04/01/2014

Hi Dave...Dr William Kelly was very successful against cancer and Nick Gonzales has been just as succesful. I read somewhere that in Nick's Metabolic Protocol for cancer, his patients take between 150 to 170 pills a day, as well as diet, enemas etc. In Max Gerson's cancer protocol, his cure appeared to be almost solely based on defending the liver at all costs -- by getting all the poisons and toxins out of the body as fast as possible using both the coffee enemas and castor oil laxatives at the same time (thus avoiding re-absorption and redistribution of both cancer toxins and heavy metals via the colon). For each cancer patient (all of them usually with Stage 4 cancer where the doctors had already given up hope), Gerson gave them 4 enemas a day and 4 enemas during the sleeping hours. That's 8 enemas every 24 hours!! Interestingly, Max Gerson originally started curing people of TB in 1928 with this protocol. Then, so the story goes, someone aproached him desperate to try his therapy for someone in the familly with cancer in the 1930s and his protocol worked -- and the rest is history.

Gerson's strategy of always protecting the liver is therefore pretty logical. Walter Last has written about pleomorphic microbes and describes his own belief that, especially in chronic autoimmune diseases, we have a sludge build-up in our blood(as we get older) that cannot be cleared -- so it never goes away but just keeps building up. It is here that this sludge -- which contains bits of proteins, DNA and RNA -- can suddenly develop on their own to become viruses. Depending on the state of the body at the time, these new dangerous pathogens will simply adapt and change into viruses, bacteria or fungus as their living medium(the host body) demands and end up causing or contributing to our vast array of idiopathic and autoimmune diseases that we have today. See Walter Last's detailed article here.

So this is where protease enzymes and other useful and helpful liver protocols(such as the coffee enema, ALA, Milk Thistle, Selenium, MSM etc) will help to clear these toxins, heavy metals, proteins and sludge from the blood.

Doctors are completely unable to cure autoimmune diseases because they think like this: One Disease -- One Germ -- One Cure. How wrong or dumb can they be ? Their strategy and treatment for any chronic auto-immune disease is always palliative -- just treat the symptoms. So its a fail for them in my book.

That's why treatments like CS or MMS or Hydrogen Peroxide are so useful -- they kill a wide range of pathogens in the blood.

Of all the high, respected professions in this world, I find it most peculiar that being a doctor is NOT a performance related profession (in terms of lives saved or improved). If modern medicine were indeed performance related then I'm pretty sure that there would be alot of doctors and specialists who would be jobless out on the street mumbling, "...But I was following the Standard of Care Manual...Honest!! ...And they still died!! ". I guess doctoring is no longer a free-thinking, common sense profession anymore. And, of course, DO NO HARM doesn't enter into any part of the equation now where another drug sale is involved.

Sorry, ranting a bit...


Shooting Pain Remedies
Posted by Tom (Fort Worth, Texas) on 12/31/2013

Happy New Year Al,

The problem you describe, shooting pain down inner thigh when you cough or sneeze, could be pelvis twisted a bit and that pinches nerves in the dorsal and down leg. Do you feel pain in lower back...especially very low in back?

I have low back issues, two rear end collisions (I was hit)...but have not had the shooting pain, but that doesn't mean a rotated pelvis would not manifest as you describe.

I've had success with Chiropractors over the years. I've had to try different ones until I got ones who nailed the problem. Also I've had some success with physical therapists.

So if the problem is really the vertebra/pelvis maybe a good DC or PT could help.


Sitting Indian Style
Posted by Timh (Ky, Usa) on 10/22/2013 2080 posts

Have thought of you during your absence and tried not to succumb to worry as most times things turn out not-so-bad at least during peace-time.

My hip where I had bone marrow biopsy hurts only occasionally (in my weakest times) so I immediately place large magnet over it for about 15 min and all the pain and inflammation is gone.

The squatting is probably a form of "earthing" and earthing is the same principle of energy medicine as magnets. I sleep on a magnet pad nightly, wear a belt for about 2 hrs daily, and use strong magnet over any severe place like liver. I have several times achieved substantial reduction in BP w/ large magn over liver.

Anyway, welcome back.


Sitting Indian Style
Posted by Mama To Many (Tennessee, Usa) on 10/23/2013

Hi Timh from KY,

Thank you for your post. I am not familiar with medical use of magnets and am looking into it!

~Mama to Many~


Apple Cider Vinegar
Posted by Bonniebee (New ) on 02/24/2017 1 posts
1 out of 5 stars

I already take one TBLS of ACV with honey and lemon every morning in a glass of warm water, but it has not helped the pain in my head, neck and back. How much ACV can one take a day for pain? Would you recommend taking it again at bedtime (I have the most pain at night and I have been avoiding IBP and other NSaids after finding out how dangerous they can be.


Severe Pain Remedies
Posted by Gillian (Andulusa, Spain ) on 09/27/2013

Hi, I need help. I am having very severe pain in my neck and shoulders, under my skin it feels gravelly and stringy/ropey. The pain feels electric. I also have similar pain and gravelly feeling around my hips. Massage acupuncture chiro just aggravate it. I feel very stressed, lots of brain fog, bad ocd and a feeling of malevolence. And feel stuck.

Sometimes the pain is so bad I want to die, tho I am not suicdal.

I am very exhausted and sleep very poorly, tho I take trazodone and deep sleep an herbal sleep aid.

My digestion is very bad lots of loose stools very smelly lots of dumping indigestion, acid stomache, bad breath, athletes foot feet very smelly even if I wash them. I am a little underwieght.

My left lower leg and foot is partly numb and has been for a few years it is not from diabetis.

I am SCARED cuz now my right leg is feeling kind of numb and tingley too. My balance feels off.

Yesterday I felt lightheaded and disoriented. I was told I have a low grade virus white blood cell count high, but they could not say what kind of virus. Does anyone know what it could be or how to heal it?

I feel achey, my voice is kind of weak and I have a dry cough and vaginal infection.

My skin color is kind of yellowish. my lfts were normal no mono or anemia.

I had been feeling terrible emotionally, tremendous rage, loads of uncontrollable crying, and depression, for long time, but the past few days my emotions are better.

I had been on a very low dose 6.5 mg venlafazine, generic of effexor which I stopped around 4 months ago with doctors ok.

I am still on 300mg of gabapentin, generic of neurotin for mood swings.

I do not use any sugar or junk food or flour.

I feel that I am getting very little nutrition from my food.

If anyone has suggestions, I would be grateful and if you can be very specific that would help as I get overwhelmed with all the info out there. The air quality in my home is bad despite a very good air filter. Thanks so much for any suggestions.

Severe Pain Remedies
Posted by Connie (Utah, Usa) on 09/28/2013

Hi Gillian;

These are the many symptoms of B12 deficiency. They are terribly painful. It's difficult to diagnose because tests can be inaccurate. Please find a doctor who knows how treat this, or take high dose sublinguals. ( some people with neurological symptoms will require very high dosages.)


Severe Pain Remedies
Posted by Mama To Many (Tennessee, Usa) on 09/28/2013

Dear Gillian, so sorry about all this pain and discomfort. I am sure it is discouraging. Several things come to mind as I read your post.

First, someone else suggested b-12, which sounds like a good idea to me, too.

Charcoal is excellent for bad breath and diarrhea. If you can stop the diarrhea, you may be able to absorb more nutrients. I would suggest 4 charcoal capules or tablets, twice a day. Do not take within two hours of medication. You can take more if you like, it can just be hard to coordinate it with other meds and supplements.

You say you have a low grade virus and athletes foot. Extra virgin coconut oil is good for viruses and athlete's foot. You could start with 1 t. Three times a day and work up to 1 T. Three times a day. Soaking your feet in 1/2 vinegar and 1/2 water may help the misery of athlete's foot as well. Do this for 15 minutes a day. (Any kind of vinegar works for this.)

Raw Apple Cider Vinegar might help you with several issues. It can help certain kinds of pain by reducing inflammation. Plus it helps to balance PH. Try 1 t. In 6 oz of water, twice a day. If that sits well with you, work up to 1 T. in 8 oz of water twice a day.

The yellowish skin makes me think of your liver. Dandelion tea would be a good blood and liver purifier. Start with 1 cup a day and work up to 2 cups a day.

If you have a way to juice organic carrots, that would be a concentrated form of nutition. So would Blackstrap molasses. (1 T. once or twice day.)

I hope this list isn't overwhelming. You have many health challenges and it may take several things to get you feeling better. These would be good things to start with.

Please keep us posted on your progress.

~Mama to Many~


Severe Pain Remedies
Posted by Mama To Many (Tennessee, Usa) on 09/29/2013

Hi Gillain, regarding the Apple Cider Vinegar - you know your body best. If internal vinegar doesn't agree with you, you are wise to know it and skip it. You could look in to alkalizing formulas here at EC, baking soda might work better for you. But now there are many suggestions for you and perhaps that idea could go on the back burner for now.

Yes, charcoal is good for loose stools and not just for diarrhea. It is a wonderful help to the gut in general as it draws out toxins. Since you mention odor and frequency, I would still consider it a good choice for you. And in some strange way, charcoal helps with pain. I wish I understood it better, but I do not, I just enjoy the way it works.

Finally, regarding the Blackstrap... You are so wise to know your body and how it reacts to sugar. Personally, I don't find it very sweet and feel in general that natural sugar (from honey and blackstrap) have enough health benefit that they are worth having in the diet, in moderation, of course. However, for someone who has a lot of trouble with sugar, it may be best to skip even those. So, for now, I would skip the Blackstrap and know it is something you can try down the road if you want. And yes, you could mix it in to water or milk or something. One of the nutrients in it is magnesium, which Toourlady89 mentions, with lots of good detail. I think she is on to something here. And I like her idea of epsom salt baths. They are great for pain and increasing your magnesium. One thing to know and watch for though is that magnesium can increase bowel function. I have a toddler that lets loose when I put him in a tub with epsom salt. (Unless he has recently "taken care of business.") Please do let us know how it is going for you!

~Mama to Many~


Multiple Remedies
Posted by Anon (Anon) on 09/06/2012
5 out of 5 stars

I get sharp and aching pain in my lower legs and tight calf muscles. Also vericose veins. It comes and goes. I used to drink a lot of coffee and take asprin. Here are a few things that help:

No caffeine or soda (Coke, Pepsi).
Capsules of CoQ 10.
Ted's lemon and baking soda remedy.
An alkaline diet. Such as eating just peaches or oranges and spinache all day.
No gluten (bread, pasta, cereal, soy sauce).
Yogi brand Joint Tea. (also gets rid of headaches and fatigue) Good steeped with a teaspoon of crushed black peppercorns and drunk hot. The tea is cool mint flavored and the peppercorns are hot :)
A glass of calcium fortified soy milk, a banana and a nap.
[Curcumin supplement]. Maybe take a C and a B vitamin and some Milk Thistle with it.


Apple Cider Vinegar
Posted by Dimple (Brighton, East Sussex) on 04/15/2012
5 out of 5 stars

Hello you lovely ppl, In pain for the last 2 days.. Couldnt move let alone get a good night sleep. Also in my last yr of Uni so filled with too much work. I found myself being so lazy and sitting around like a zombie.. when I thought maybe there will be a home remedy I should try.

Oh boy, one shot of ACV and magically the pain was gone within seconds!!! What!! I want to thank all you ppl on this website for helping me :) God bless u all xx


Magnesium Oil
Posted by Littlewing (Boston, Ma) on 02/08/2012

I have suffered from shoulder pain for quite a few months now. I don't know how I did it, but over time I've had less and less mobility in my shoulders, right far worse than the left (I'm a righty). They get stiff but the night time was the WORST. I'm sure some of it was from sleeping on it - but I would wake up in the middle of the night from the pain and I was always on my back and literally wouldn't be able to move my arm for a minute or two, then would have to support my right arm with my left hand so I could move it and loosen it up. The pain was horrible.

I've been reading lots of info on here and decided to try the magnesium oil as it seemed the easiest and wouldn't taste badly (I tried ACV, blech). Well, wouldn't you know a few hours after putting magnesium oil directly on my right shoulder the pain had subsided. I slept almost straight through the night that first night. That was just four days ago. I've been applying the magnesium oil in the morning and at night. My shoulder is still having discomfort but the pain lessening is awesome. I'm going to try h2o2 next, already have my food grade diluted down. I'm going to try the spray directly method first but will probably start drinking it in the morning as well. Here's hoping I have even better results! Health and happiness to all and thank you EC - I've told so many people about it looking for cures to acid reflux, migraines, reynauds, etc. You guys rock!


Pimento Oil
Posted by Lady English (Brooklyn, New York, Usa) on 08/14/2011
5 out of 5 stars

Pimento is a natural analgesic, therefore numbs pain. Sufferers of rheumatism, arthritis, nerve damage, water retention, fevers, back pain, foot pain, numbness and tingling can all benefit from a herbal preparation containing Pimento. There is one on the market which they call "a complete medicine cabinet in a bottle", because it is an all round pain medication. Pimento oil, with lemongrass, nutmeg, cinnamon and peppermint stopped me getting cortisone shots in my shoulders every 3 months. I still use it for any pain, it really is an "everything" medication without all the side effects of prescription medicine! Pimento Oil is the best!

Pulsed Electromagnetic Field
Posted by Steve (Las Vegas, Nv) on 05/22/2011

I have a Sota Magnetic pulser and it does help to relieve pain by pulsing bio-north magnetic energy into the lymph and tissues. I have also found a laser therapy pen useful for relieving pain and speeding the healing process. Both of these are helpful for rejuvenating skin/tissue.



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