Posted by Ted (Bangkok, Thailand) on 08/27/2007 | 388 Posts
As per your request for research references regarding the antidote of fluoride poisoning, there is both the use of borax to remove fluoride and also the use of tamarind used to increase fluoride excretion as an antidote to fluoride poisoning. Most of the boron antidote was taken from research of Elsair, et.al. as follows:
"Boron effectively counteracts symptoms of fluoride intoxication in humans (Zhou et al. 1987) and in experimentally poisoned rabbits (Elsair et al. 1980a, 1980b, 1981). Men suffering from skeletal fluorosis experienced 50 to 80% improvement after drinking solutions containing 300 to 1,100 mg of borax/L daily, 3 weeks a month for 3 months (Zhou et al. 1987). Boron enhances sequestration of fluoride from bone and excretion through kidneys and possibly the intestinal tract (Elair et al. 1980a, 1981)"
Many of these research are not well known in U.S., but it's there if you dig hard enough. The details of research description regarding the experiment is no longer found in webpages however, I still have the references material based on that reading here.
P.S. Boron is found in borax. Sometimes I use the word boron to emphasize that there is boron in borax. Borax is a compound form of boron, with oxygen and sodium attached.
Journal of Pharmacology And Experimental Therapeutics, Vol. 74, Issue 2, 235-238, 1942 Copyright %uFFFD 1942 by American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
A STUDY OF ANTIDOTES FOR FLUORINE S. MARCOVITCH 1 and W. W. STANLEY 1
1 From the Department of Entomology, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Tennessee, Knoxville
The fluoborates when fed in powdered form were found to be non-toxic to both rats and insects. In solution enough fluorine is liberated to produce toxic effects.
Both aluminum sulphate and hydrated lime are capable of saving animals from a lethal dose of sodium fluoride when mixed with the latter. Boric acid also has some value as an antidote through the formation of a fluoborate. The aluminum sulphate forms cryolite which was found to be much less toxic. When aluminum sulphate is mixed with the sodium fluoride and used as a roach powder, a lower kill is obtained than with sodium fluoride alone.
January 2002, Volume 56, Number 1, Pages 82-85 Table of contents Previous Article Next [PDF]
Original Communication Effect of tamarind ingestion on fluoride excretion in humans
A L Khandare, G S Rao and N Lakshmaiah
National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, Hyderabad, India
Correspondence to: A L Khandare, National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Council of Medical Research, Jamai Osmania PO, Hyderabad 500 007, AP, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Research on Tamarind and Fluoride Removal:
Objective: To evaluate the effect of tamarind (Tamarindus indicus) ingestion on excretion of fluoride in school children.
Design: Randomized, diet-control study.
Subject: Twenty healthy boys were included and 18 of them completed the study.
Interventions: Each subject consumed 10 g tamarind daily with lunch for 18 days at the social welfare boys' hostel. The nutrient composition of the daily diet was constant throughout the experimental period.
Results: Tamarind intake led to significant increase (P<0.001) in the excretion of fluoride in 24 h urine (4.8%uFFFD0.22 mg/day) as compared to excretion on control diet (3.5%uFFFD0.22 mg/day). However, excretion of magnesium and zinc decreased significantly (7.11%uFFFD1.48 mg of Mg and 252.88%uFFFD12.84 %uFFFDg of Zn per day on tamarind diet as compared to 23.39%uFFFD3.68 mg of Mg and 331.78%uFFFD35.31 %uFFFDg Zn per day on control diet). Excretion of calcium and phosphorous were not significantly different while creatinine excretion decreased with tamarind intake (225.66%uFFFD81 mg creatinine/day with tamarind and 294.5%uFFFD78.76 mg creatinine/day without tamarind).
Conclusion: Tamarind intake is likely to help in delaying progression of fluorosis by enhancing urinary excretion of fluoride.
Sponsorship: National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India (ICMR).
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2002) 56, 82-85. DOI: 10.1038/sj/ejcn/1601287
Please see references material attached, especially:
1: Z Gesamte Hyg. 1977 Jan;23(1):14-20. Links [Results of animal experimental studies on rabbits with sodium fluoride and the effect of antidotes] [Article in German]
Baer HP, Bech R, Franke J, Grunewald A, Kochmann W, Melson F, Runge H, Wiedner W.
PMID: 842048 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Here is the research material on the fluoride antidote using boron:
Fluoride 1981; 14(1):21-29
Boron as antidote to fluoride: effect on bones and claws in subacute intoxication of rabbits
Elsair J, Merad R, Denine R, Azzouz M, Khelfat K, Hamrour M, Alamir B, Benali S, Reggabi M
Laboratories of Physiology, Toxicology and Galenic Pharmacy, Medical Institute, Algiers, Algeria
Summary: Rabbits were "subacutely" intoxicated by administration of 30 mg/kg/day of fluoride for 3 months followed by 15 mg/kg/day for a subsequent 3 months (F). Boron was given alone (B) as preventive and simultaneously with fluoride prophylactically (F Bp), as well as therapeutically namely midway during the experimental period (F Bpc) while fluoride was being administered and after it was discontinued (Bc compared with fluoirde interuption F*), at a constant F/B ratio. All groups were compared to normal controls.
Boron administered during fluoride intoxication or after its interruption, reduces fluoremia and increases urinary fluoride excretion. Skeletal fluoride levels are directly relatd to those of claws. They bear no relationship to fluoride in hair. The high fluoride content in bone in lot F decreases with addition of boron. It is still high in lot F* but returns to normal in loc Bc. Calcium content of bones remains normal in all lots. Posterior pad radiography shows a cortical thickness in lot F which is less pronounced in lots F Bpc and F*, and returns to normal in lot Bc.