Pet Health: Forum & Advice for Mysterious Pet Ailments

| Modified on Aug 17, 2023
Oregano Oil
Posted by Diamond (Ma.) on 07/06/2016

I have been losing so many of my loving pets from so many illnesses and bad conventional drugs... I have one dog here that is actually 80 years old in peoples age. A few months ago she went down/ for what I felt was her last time here on earth.. I carried her to and from the outside to do her duties...& continued to do so for at least a the meantime I was giving her an excellent natural herb/ Oil of oregano/great name brand by Gaia. Thick white mucus was coming out of both ends, it was then she got up & started walking again. She still has a large amount of congestion, but I now understand it that it's a defense against any serious diseases further entering her body....Here is some more great information for sick dogs..Most illnesses come from dogs/cats food...This site is very informative.. Good Luck....

Exhibiting Terrified Behavior
Posted by Antonella (Canada) on 02/29/2016

I`m so sorry. I know how horrible it is to watch pets suffer and not be able to help. My dog had a similar episode a couple of times. He would start acting panicked, scared, almost paranoid. Could not sit still but would not wonder more than a few feet away from me. Nothing I did seemed to reassure him.

On a hunch, the second time it happened, I let him outside because I had seen him eat grass I assume to soothe his tummy. He began eating grass and shrubs like his life depended on it. I let him eat for a couple of minutes then brought him inside and force fed him about a quarter cup of hydrogen paroxide to induce vomiting just in case he had eaten anything bad. He immediately vomited his meal (which was the same he had been eating all along) along with all the grass and vegetation. Again I let him out and watched very closely as he continued to eat grass but not as desperately as he had the first time.

The next day I watched him when I let him out to the back yard and immediately saw the problem. He had started drinking from a small pond in my back yard. The pump had recently broken and I had forgotten to empty the stagnant water. I emptied and covered the pond and have not had an issue since.

Also I`ve since added a probiotic to his food every day as he seems to have a sensitive stomach and bloats. I only use alpha omega probiotic 8 plus for pets. It is an amazing product that I`ve used for internal and topical applications.

I hope this helps.

EC: Thank you for your feedback. For those who don't know, please note that the dosage of hydrogen peroxide to induce vomiting is as follows:

"The general rule for peroxide is 5 mls (or 1 teaspoon) per 10 pounds, orally. Repeat every 15-20 minutes, up to three times, until the animal vomits."


Constant Itch
Posted by Antonella (Canada) on 02/29/2016

Are there any sores or red, raw patches? Any other symptoms? My dog also had itchy patches that vet products could not resolve. I was desperate to help him so one day I tried adding his probiotic (alpha omega probiotic plus 8 - must be this one- only one that works). I filtered some of the larger particles out, added some coconut oil and diatomaceous earth and made a spreadable paste. I applied the paste to his itchy spots and all kinds of nasties came off. I've since made added shampoo or some dish soap to the mixture and wash my dog with it at least twice a week. I also add it every one of his meals or feed him the coconut oil, diatomaceous earth, probiotic mixture (no filtering) and he loves it.

It's made a tremendous difference. No more itchies but am now working to determine what underlying cause is bring on this issue.

Posted by Bempierre (Ca) on 07/13/2015


Too bad I did not see this back in 3013, but I noticed that no one had addressed the pay day chocolate bar that was given to the dog. Chocolate in very small amounts can be deadly and also cause seizures. A tiny chocolate chip in a cookie can cause seizures. Wondering how many other occasions this dog has been given chocolate?

Posted by Theresa (Mpls., Mn) on 08/02/2014

Hey Nunmuri!

It's possible Snowpy has diabetes. I agree with taking her to the vet for a diagnosis. It is also possible, if Snowpy is spayed, that she is experiencing incontinence. Treatment is available for both conditions. Please report back and let us know what you find out.

Posted by Nunmuri (Caloocan, Philippines) on 08/02/2014

Hi, I have a 4 year old Shihtzu named Snowpy, I'm worried for her since for the last few days I notice she keeps on peeing when she's asleep and usually she didn't get up. I noticed that from the place where she lay down (up on the chair) there's urine under her even though she peed even before she goes to sleep. I also notice that unlike before I can feel her bones at her back but she still weighs 4.7kg. She eats a lot these days compare to before. I am planning to take her to the vet to check her up. What do you think is the problem?

Posted by Theresa (Mpls., Mn) on 07/22/2014

Hey Ambiii!

I am trying to understand. What kind of infection? Skin infection?

Posted by Ambiii (Guwahati) on 07/22/2014

My puppy is having infection in his body below ear and stomach; he is 25 days old.... How can I treat it at home??
Vet doctor is sayng he can't suggest solution

Please help me.

Lymph Nodes Swelling
Posted by Claire (Pasadena, California) on 07/09/2013

So sorry! I would try giving turmeric to your dog daily and see if that helps. The other remedy that comes to mind is apple cider vinegar in her food or water. Turmeric is a blood purifier and apple cider vinegar alkalizes and detoxes. Dosage depends on size. Also Essiac Tea might be very helpful. There are posts on Earth Clinic of great results with Essiac Tea for their dogs (and people too). If possible, try to find a holistic vet to help you. Please let us know how your dog is doing and what you find out.

Lymph Nodes Swelling
Posted by Jessica (Kansas City, Missouri) on 07/07/2013

I have a 2 year old Pitbull who has had swollen lymphnodes for about 4 months. She goes to the vet regularily for this and still we are not able to find the root of the problem. It is not limited to one place on her body - swollen in her neck, cheast, legs with her neck and cheast area being the largest. Her face also swells & about 2 months ago she had a large abcess on her face that was drained, we thought that was the cause of the lymphnode swelling, but even after that was healed she is still swollen & clearly not still not feeling well. We have done blood tests and lymphnode aspirations which both came back inconclusive for lymphoma- basically "suspicious" cells in both, not able to say yes or no at this point. Her white blood cell count was double what it should be which tells us this is some sort of infection she is fighting off. Antibiotics work and the swelling goes down for a week or two & then comes back. Has anyone ever seen this problem or know of anything I can do to help her? I will take any feedback at this point, just want to get her better!

Exhibiting Terrified Behavior
Posted by Deb (Pittsburgh, Pa) on 06/03/2013

Thank you Om very much!

You are right - God has given us everything that we need in his natural pharmacy.

I will check out those homeopathic remedies. It has to be better than the pharmaceutical pain medication from the vet.

But I had to give him one today; he went under the outside table this morning and hid for a moment under the tablecloth - something he only does when he's having these episodes - so, trying to nip it in the bud I gave him one tramadol.

He did it again a few minutes later, but now I'm wondering if he has just discovered a new fun thing to do, and that I may have overreacted.

But since he started to include many minutes of (slower and quieter) pacing as well, I think I may have stopped something with the tramadol.

Can't wait to get him off of that, however.

I will update when I have discovered what this is - surely it will help someone in the same situation.

Earthclinic is amazing!

Exhibiting Terrified Behavior
Posted by Om (Hope, B.C., Canada) on 06/02/2013

to Deb from pittsburgh. I am very concerned. It could be poisoning with drugs added. This happened to my dog. Try NEREEL from Heel homeopathics. The vet knew nothing but this helped. You can also try STAPHYSAGRIA homeopathics which fits his symptoms such as startled, jumping, fear, etc. The strength of these remedies could be 30C. ACONITUM is for the onset of such symptoms only. My own dog was o.k. after the remedy Nereel but later I realized there could have been kidney damage. Don't panic, God's pharmacy is great and affordable. Keep us informed. Om

Exhibiting Terrified Behavior
Posted by Deb (Pittsburgh, Pa) on 06/01/2013

Claire, Thank you so much again for all of your information! I will get the water, and tried the massage on his neck, which I think he loved.

I've made an appointment with a vet who does laser therapy, which I've only heard good things about. Hopefully they can find what is wrong - I'm assuming they have a chiropractor there as well - and can fix it.

I would rather that it is skeletal or muscular pain that can be identified and taken care of, than something internal or seizures, etc.

Thank you again!

Exhibiting Terrified Behavior
Posted by Claire (Los Angeles, California) on 06/01/2013

To Deb, sorry I was about to rush out the door early this morning when I read your post and didn't have time to give a very thorough response. I meant any brand name spring water that you'd buy at the grocery store, or the even larger 5 gallon containers of spring water that Whole Foods, Home Depot and/or Lowe's sells, like Poland Springs, Crystal Geyser, etc. I give my dog filtered spring water because of impurities in the local tap water. A 5 gallon container costs about $6 a bottle after you pay the deposit plus cost of the fountain or ceramic jug you place it on.

I once had a dog whose neck used to go out and when that happened, he shrieked out in terrible pain and would lash out at anyone trying to help him and run around and hide looking terrified. It took a great vet to diagnose the issue and another vet who knew chiropractic to put his vertebrae back into place. So that's why I suggest you do very gentle massage (small circular movements) on his whole body to find out where the issues are. You never know, he might have pulled a muscle one of his back legs. Once you find the area causing pain, you can gentle work on it with acupressure or massage. I find this is a great way to find the areas that are bothering them.

My dog has a sore area midway down the spine (between his shoulder blades) and I do acupressure circles on either side of his vertebrae once a week. When I hit a sore place, he lifts up his head and looks at me with concern. If I do these same massage circles on a muscle near that area, the muscle twitches.

Most dogs and cats LOVE it when you massage the area at the top of the spine just below the skull. I think it often gets very sore, just like our necks. I have found that that area can tolerate deeper tissue massage. In my experience, dogs and cats are soooooo grateful to get massage and acupressure and they absolutely need it, just like we do, as they age. My dog will come up to me and when I massage the top of his neck, he will often bend his head down into my lap so I can dig in deeper. It is so amazing!!

I will be thinking about you and your dog!

Exhibiting Terrified Behavior
Posted by Deb (Pittsburgh, Pa) on 06/01/2013

Thank you Claire and thank you Om!

The vet seemed to think that it was arthritis pain, but I've read quite a lot about arthritis pain and I've not read about such severe symptoms such as he exhibited - although he definitely does have pain.

Claire - about the filtered spring water - I know we don't name names here, but would you have some suggestions on where to find this?

And Om - what are some of these homeopathic remedies for, specifically?

Because of wonderful earthclinic, I've learned about blackstrap molasses and coconut oil for his arthritis - which he now gets every day - and from other reading I've found that dogs can get low blood sugar attacks.

So I followed poor Jake around the house for the first hour, rubbing honey on his lips (or trying to get close) hoping it was low blood sugar. It didn't help.

Also from wonderful earthclinic, I've learned about magnesium oil, so I was spraying him with that and trying to rub it in.

If you can imagine being in such pain or anxiety that you're not really aware of your surroundings, but someone keeps smearing your face with honey and spraying you and rubbing you with magnesium oil..... Poor thing..... I can laugh a little about it now, only because he's now had such a good day that I'm sure he would laugh with me about my remedies, if he could.

Thank you again both of you for your kind suggestions!

Jake, thank you as well.

Exhibiting Terrified Behavior
Posted by Om Sairam (Hope, Bc, Canada) on 06/01/2013

You can try the homeopathic remedy ACONITUM. That is for the start. But just once. Does it look like poisoning? Is his fur standing up? In that cae use nereel from heel homeopathics. After giving aconitum just ONCE try to give arnica montana or hypericum (the latter for nerves). These remedies cost little. Keep us informed. Om

Exhibiting Terrified Behavior
Posted by Claire (Los Angeles, California) on 06/01/2013

So sorry to hear your dog is going through this. I have to think about it for a while, but the first thing I would do is give him only filtered spring water. No tap water, no filtered tap water, but the kind you buy in large containers that have been filtered of all heavy metals. It's possible something in his water or food source is contaminating his blood and causing these symptoms.. High levels of heavy metals, arsenic or mercury. Will let you know if I think of anything else. I would also spend time every day massaging him and trying to pinpoint any sore areas. Could be his neck is out or another muscle is spasming. Poor boy. I am so sorry.

Exhibiting Terrified Behavior
Posted by Deb (Pittsburgh, Pa, Usa) on 05/31/2013

My dog has been exhibiting some strange behavior lately, with the last episode downright terrifying. Just wondering if anyone can recognize these symptoms and give some ideas as to what is going on:

One minute he's relaxed and the next minute he jumps up and starts nervously pacing through the house going from room to room, very agitated. Then he will begin to try to hide as he continues to pace quickly through the house.

During this time (lasting two hours) he is panting so heavily that his tongue becomes purple in color, hanging from the side of his mouth. He seems crazed and 'not there' - either in serious pain or fear.

Nothing that we do helps, although a pay-day candy bar with some baby aspirin helped one time. We were not sure if it was the candy bar (if he was having a low blood sugar attack?) or the aspirin (if he was in terrible pain).

Two days ago it went from a 10 to 100:

Exhibiting the same terrified behavior, going into closets and getting stuck, trying to climb under the bed (big dog 110 pounds). The more he paced, panted and hid the more confused and weak he got until he was stumbling into things and getting weaker and weaker. He would stand with his elbows sharply out, his back legs in bizarre positions. He looked as if someone had put a 200 pound weight on him that was collapsing his body down to the ground but he was still holding himself up - barely

His eyes were sunken and his mouth drawn back, after two hours of incessant panting, pacing, hiding and stumbling, he looked like all of the air had been sucked out of him. I could hardly recognize him. He lost control of his muscles and fell on his face, blood everywhere. I was trying to hold him up and keep him from pacing but I couldn't get him to slide his legs down and to lay down

After two hours of watching him fall apart in front of my eyes, I was sure that he was going to collapse and die, the way that he sounded and looked. Nothing had worked this time.

When my husband finally got home, he had to carry Jake to the car to get to the vet's - who said she'd never seen or heard of this before and didn't have any ideas. She sent us home with some morphone-like pain medication which has him so drugged up he only got up to go to the bathroom 12 hours after he'd taken the medication. I've spent countless hours the last few months - and particularly after this episode - trying to find some information on the internet and have come up with nothing. Does this sound familiar to anyone?

Thank you so much in advance for any information, suggestion, advice... He's a 12 year old mixed breed rather large dog with some pain in his legs and recently has a hard time with stairs some days... And other days he's fine. No medications.

Thanks again!

Posted by Wendy (Columbus, Oh/usa) on 12/03/2012

Bring your puppy to the vet IMMEDIATELY!! There are so many illnesses a puppy could have, especially if it hasn't yet had its shots. Has the puppy had her shots?? Please bring her to a low-cost vet in your area (call your main vet or people you know, and ask them if they know of a low-cost vet).

Posted by Quita (Hearne, Texas, Us) on 12/02/2012

Okay! My 12 week old Pitbull puppy is not herself right about now. She isnt running around, eating or drinking anything and everytime my Mom tries to syringe her some fluids she makes an gasping noise.. I need answers!!!

Loss of Appetite, Listlessness, Loss of Leg Movement
Posted by Lucky12 (Longwood, Fl, Usa) on 12/02/2012

Hi - Just before Thanksgiving my 8 year old mix breed (80lbs) stopped eating and seems to be very sensitive to his backside. He lost his appetite and stopped eating for about 5 days. I took him in to the vet for multiple testing (blood, urine and xrays) The xrays were all normal and didn't find anything. His globulin levels were way high and protein in his urine. They can't figure out what's wrong with him. We tested for tick borne disease as he is showing signs/symptoms. If it comes back negative they are sending me to a specialist for some bone marrow testing. Vet has suggested possible bone cancer. Since been on pain meds - he's eating, drinking still and his bowels are all normal. He sleeps majority of the day and his bag legs are giving out. I'm so upset and confused why we can't figure out what's wrong with him. Any thoughts/suggestions would so be greatly appreciated.

Vomiting, Lethargic, Unstable Stance
Posted by Christy (Nc, In) on 11/24/2012

My husband and I have just adopted a toy min pin. He's been fine, happy and healthy until today. We put in him in his crate for a lil down time, about and hour later let him out and he had vomited a lil in crate, then acted very strange, lethargic couldnt hold his lil weight up, like an unstable stance. He ate all his dinner, but not acting right, will not drink- have been on computer searching for info hoping someone can help us.

Bloating, Unusual Stools, Lack of Appetite, Thirst
Posted by Daveyo (Nakhon Sawan, Thailand) on 08/30/2012

Yes get your dog over to a VET for immediate surgery to re-arrange the stomach. If you don't the dog will die.

Bloating, Unusual Stools, Lack of Appetite, Thirst
Posted by Missy's Mom (Us) on 08/18/2012

A few days ago I noticed that my 11 year old, 80 lb, very mixed breed dog's stomach area looked swollen just under her rib cage. For the last month or more she has not been wanting to eat all the time. I thought that it was because she is a grass eater and hasn't been able to do that lately because our grass is too dry from the recent dry weather (I have since started watering an area for her. ) Over the last few days, the swelling has gotten larger down into her stomach. She acts fine. Goes to bathroom fine, though her stool is dark green. She does not want her dry food (Pedigree), but I have found that she will eat pasta 2 times a day. I am adding mashed up mixed vegetables to add some nutrition. Also, In the past month since she started not wanting to eat, she has been panting and seems to drink more water that usual. I read the "bloat" listing on here, but this doesn't seem like the case to me. She hasn't had any shots recently. She was due for her state mandated rabies shot in June, but because she wasn't feeling well, I did not take her. Any ideas? Thanks in advance.

Vomiting, Bloody Stools, Weak
Posted by Nh Gardener (Sanbornton, Nh, Usa) on 06/18/2012

For Zai re. Vomiting kitties, bloody stools, weak--I didn't see original post, but please try giving with syringe diluted raw apple cider vinegar/raw honey in water, along with powdered charcoal and/or food grade diatomaceous earth DE. ACV/honey will give electrolytes; charcoal and DE both absorb and eliminate toxins from body. DE also said to allay nausea and vomiting. Good luck.

Vomiting, Bloody Stools, Weak
Posted by Maggie (Stonington, Me USA) on 06/17/2012

dear Zai, i was terribly sorry to read about your kitties today and hope, by some miracle they thrive. i wonder if they got in, to poison--coyote bait for example. a friend's two dogs had similar symptoms.

how helpless you must have felt. I wish you all good.


Hot, Itchy Ears, Runny, Smelly Nose
Posted by Radar Jindo (Seattle, Wa .u.s.a.) on 04/26/2012

My dog Radar finds this solution soothing to the ears, like putting out a fire.

What I am not sure about is the cause of the problem. His ears are always clean, but sometimes hot and seem like they are itchy. I will rub his ears (which he loves) and he lays on his side and softly "grunts" with relief. His nose will run at this time, and there is a foul odor from the nose. I am wondering if it could be a sinus problem. This has been going on chronically for years, and our vet is stumped on this one...

Rapid Breathing, Not Sleeping, Vomiting Blood
Posted by Jeane (Quezon City, Philippines) on 03/18/2012

Hello, Marilyn! I am no vet and cannot diagnose your dog's ailment, but I just noticed something that you wrote about his diet. You give him chicken liver for his every meal, as I understand. I have been told that liver retains a lot of toxins so it should not be given regularly to a dog. A gradual change of diet may help your Toby. Maybe you can give him some organic eggs and organic vegetables instead. Good luck!

Rapid Breathing, Not Sleeping, Vomiting Blood
Posted by Marilyn (Fridley, Mn Usa) on 03/17/2012

About three weeks ago my little dog Toby vomited blood twice and I watched him very close over the weekend and then took him to the vet on Monday. Upon being examined the vet determined him to be healthy and gave me medication to help decrease fluid that he may be retaining.

Well I have not seen any real benefit from the medication, he urinates no more than normal. His breathing is rapid and he doesn't seem to be sleeping and every so often he jumps like he's in pain and then he will get up and lay next to me. I am scared he may have cancer or something and I wanted to know if anyone out there could give me feedback. I stopped feeding him Ultam dry dog food in Febuary and he is now on a mixture of cooked chicken livers, sweet potatoe, green beens, carrots that is blended. He is still eating and drinking yet very low energy level. Please I need some feedback and I love this website it has so much good information on it I need someone to help me and is there a test that a vet can do to see if he has cancer? Marilyn in MN

Loss of Appetite
Posted by April (Lake Villa, Illinois, U.s.) on 03/11/2012

My cat squeeky won't eat. She is losing weight. I took her to the vet twice and they did x-rays and blood work and do not know what is wrong or why she won't eat. I am very scared for her and I don't know what to do. I have been mixing food and water and sqirting it into her mouth with a needless syringe like the vet told me to do and she is on a medication to stimulate her appetite, but so far she will not eat. I mixed a little ACV in with the food and water but she still won't eat or drink on her own. she ate a little bit of wheat grass and she tried to eat some grass outside when we took her out for fresh air, but the snow just melted and the grass is all but dead. Does anyone have any idea what I can do?

Vomiting, Bloody Stools, Weak
Posted by Zai (Bocaue, Bulacan) on 03/07/2012

Hi! I hope you can reply regarding my problem asap. I have a persian kitten (5mnths old). She stopped eating, drinking, pee and poo last wk (friday). I forced to feed her but no luck. She vomits white saliva and then yellowish. The following day (sat) she was admited at the vet clinic. They put iv fluids and given her antibiotics. That night she had her poo. But the following morning (sun) she had bloody stools and had seizures twice. She can't stand anymore and was very pale! I had been crying since then. Monday morning she responded to my voice, she can sit already and no bloody stools. Tuesday, she's looking better and can walk already, the vet told me as soon as she starts to eat I can take her home.

Sadly this afternoon when I visited her she looked pale again and quite weak. But she had a bloody stool again.. I don't know what to do! Now her two siblings are already sick just like what she have! I gave them water through syringe but they vomit it! I don't know what to do.. What kind of disease they have? They started to get sick last night at 10pm. Its only 4am now and theres no clinic, I need to wait til 8am!! Oh pls somebody help my kitties! I don't wanna lose them.. :(

Volcanic Lesion
Posted by Robin (Raleigh, North Carolina) on 01/31/2012

Hi - I believe my dog was bitten by a brown recluse spider. She has the volcanic lesion in her digit (back paw). I saw remedies for humans - not sure what I can use on the dog and an open wound. For example, should I put the baking soda paste on an open wound? Should I use the echnicea oil on the open wound? Which is better? Should I combine?

Any advice would be greatly appreciated. Also, the Vet "thinks" the wound was caused by a spider bite but is it possible that the problem could be from something else like a flesh eating virus (in a dog). My dog is on antibiotics now and pain meds.

Finanlly, what book(s) could I get to help educate me? I am having a really hard time trying to find information especially for my dog and experienced Vets with this type of bite.

Thank You, Robin

cell: 718.637.3780

Uncontrollable Urination
Posted by Kathie (Silver Valley, North Carolina) on 05/27/2011

I have a 4month old blue tick pup. Who at first I thought was just stubborn to the idea of house breaking. But now, I realize that she is urininating and not really knowing that she does it. She's has urinated while she is sound to sleep. She will urinate while outside, and come in the house and urinate again when she sits to get her treat. She has to go outside every 20 to 30 mins just to urinate.

Uncontrollable Urination
Posted by 4dugnlee (Pierpont, Oh) on 05/18/2011

Hi.. On May 8, 2011 my 5 dogs received their vaccinations including the Rabies vaccine. My Red Tick, Spotsy, who is about 1 1/2 years old, started uncontrollably urinating in the house yesterday. This has never been a problem with her before, and she acts like she doesn't know that she did it. She has no other symptoms or reactions at the injection site. She received Univac 7 and Rabvac 3. The only other change that happened recently is that when I went to get dog food, their regular brand was gone so I bought Pedigree for them. I wondered if anyone else has had this experience, and would appreciate any suggestions as to whether it would be more likely caused by the vaccines or the dog food, and of course, any remedy recommendations. I am going to get her regular dog food today, but not much I can do about the vaccines. Any advice would be greatly appreciated! Thanks!!

Skin Sores, Bad Odor, Fur Loss, Scratching Incessantly
Posted by 5 Pooches Home (Houston, Tx) on 03/22/2011

I have 2 poodles and both are shelter dogs. Never had any allergy or skin condition. So you can try this-

1. STOP ALL medicines NOW - this means heartworm medicine, antibiotics and what not! And even the eye drops.

2. Feed HOMEMADE FOOD - Brown rice with beans and freshly sauteed veggies.

3. Add COCONUT OIL (2-3 Tablespoon) & 2-3 GARLIC CLOVES in his diet starting TODAY. Get a good quality coconut oil form Whole Foods or Indian food store. NOT refined one. Pick fresh garlic also.

4. Apply NEEM OIL ON HIS SKIN. You can get this from any Indian grocery store in your area or maybe Whole Foods may have it.


6. Also after his bath (with hypoallergenic BABY shampoo - from Walgreens or so) apply NEEM OIL MIXED WITH LITTLE BUT OF COCONUT OIL.

7. Give him APPLE CIDER VINEGAR in his Water. 3-4 tablespoons or BOIL RICE in water and acv. 90-10 ration.

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