The #1 Natural Cure for Your Cat’s Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

Apr 22, 2017

Organic apple cider vinegar is the most popular and effective natural cure for a cat’s Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), according to Earth Clinic cat lovers.  Urinary tract infections are the #1 reason that people bring their cat to the vet.  It is obvious that the cat is suffering.  Treatment is a two-step process: 1) treat the current UTI with apple cider vinegar or other safe, effective natural remedies and 2) prevent the cat from having further problems with UTIs by ensuring that the cat receives enough water through the elimination of dry cat food.

How to Cure Your Cat’s Urinary Tract Infection with Apple Cider Vinegar

Emergency Dose

Fill a needleless syringe with a 50/50 mix of organic apple cider vinegar and water. One reader gave her cat 3 syringes full; this is a good way to get the liquid into a cat that won’t eat or drink. The reader reported that the cat’s urinary tract blockage was “eaten through” in 4 hours, allowing the cat to urinate. This is a strong dose, used by a reader who believed that her cat was dying. Some cats might not be able to tolerate it.

Standard Dose

Mix 1-3 teaspoons apple cider vinegar into 1 cup of water.  Use a dropper to get about 1/8th cup of liquid into cat’s mouth.  Give to cat every hour to start.

You can also dip cat’s paw into a bowl of the vinegar/water mix so that he will lick it off the paw.

Maintenance Dose

1-3 teaspoons of apple cider vinegar mixed with 1 quart of water.  Use for normal drinking water.  Alternatively, add 1-3 teaspoons of apple cider vinegar to canned food.  If the cat refuses either food or water mixed with vinegar, try dipping the cat’s paws into the water bowl so that the cat licks them dry.

How Apple Cider Vinegar Can Cure a Urinary Tract Infection

Organic apple cider vinegar works against the microorganisms causing the cat's urinary tract infection in two ways:

1). the apple cider vinegar creates an environment too alkaline for the microorganisms to thrive;

2). the vinegar is a potent antimicrobial and kills the weakened microbes.

Water Is the Best Preventative for Urinary Tract Infections

WATER is the most important preventative for urinary tract disorders, including UTIs.  Use purified spring water unless your tap water comes directly from your own well.  Cats need a great deal of water, but do not drink as much as their bodies require in order to function properly.

Much of the water that a cat needs comes from its food.  If a cat is hunting its own food, that prey is approximately 70% water.  Canned cat food is about 78% water.  Dry cat food, on the other hand, is only 5-10% water.  This puts the cat’s body into a severe water deficit, but the cat will not drink enough water to make up the difference.

It doesn’t matter whether or not the dry cat food is an expensive prescription brand.  The simple fact that it is dry means that there is not enough water passing through the cat’s urinary tract system to keep it healthy.

A cat eating canned or raw food will use the litter box more often.  Consider this a blessing in disguise.  It means that the cat’s system is flushing itself as it should. When the amount of water that the cat receives from all sources is considered, a cat on canned or raw food consumes at least DOUBLE the total water that a cat fed only dry cat food receives.  Twice the water = twice the urine = a good thing.

How to Switch a Cat that Loves Dry Cat Food to Canned Cat Food

If the cat is sick, chances are that he/she is not eating much, so this would not be a good time to try to switch foods.  When the cat is feeling better, this tip may help with the diet switch.

Make Flavored Water

Flavored water can be easily made using chicken or beef broth, lactose-free cat milk or the juice from canned salmon or clams.  Tuna water is easily made by combining a can of tuna with 3 cans of water, mashing it up and letting it sit for 15 minutes.

Freeze the flavored water in ice cube trays.  Thaw as needed.  Use in cat’s water bowl or with 1-2 tablespoons of canned food in food bowl.

Diabetic cats: Proceed cautiously with any food change for a diabetic cat, keeping in mind that the cat’s carbohydrate intake should be less than 7-10% of daily calorie intake.  Without enough carbohydrates, however, the cat could be thrown into a dangerous state of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).

Symptoms of a Urinary Tract Infection

The symptoms of a UTI are obvious.  The most common signs of a urinary tract infection include:

  • Urinating outside the litter box;
  • Going to the litter box more frequently than normal;
  • Making sounds of pain within the litter box – inflamed bladders are painful;
  • Seeing blood in the litter box;
  • The cat demonstrating that it is in pain by crying or hunching up;
  • Drinking more water than normal – the cat needs the water desperately, but cannot drink enough to cure the problem.

What is a Urinary Tract Infection?

Cats can be afflicted with a number of problems with the urinary tract, generally referred to as Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease (FLUTD).   A urinary tract infection is one of the ailments included within the overall description of FLUTD.  As the name suggests, a urinary tract infection refers to the colonization of bacteria (E. Coli, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Proteus) or viruses within the normally sterile urinary tract.  These microorganisms damage the cells; blockage of the urethra causes difficulty in urinating.

The job of the urinary tract is to filter and clean the blood and to produce, store and eliminate urine.  Cats of any age can develop this problem (although it is seldom seen in cats under 1 year old); it is seen more often in male cats than in female.

It’s heartbreaking to watch a cat suffering from a urinary tract infection.  Conventional treatments with antibiotics and possibly surgery might clear up the current infection, but will do nothing to prevent the cat from getting another infection.  The best way to ensure that the cat remains healthy is to see that the cat gets enough water by feeding the cat a raw or canned food diet and adding a maintenance dose of organic apple cider vinegar to the cat's food and/or drinking water.

Contact us and let us know how you treated your cat’s urinary tract infection.  Scroll down to read posts from Earth Clinic cat lovers about their experiences with feline UTIs.

Related Content:

Urinary Tract Disorders
Cystitis



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Posted by Victoria (Rochester, Ny) on 03/22/2017
5 out of 5 stars

We filled a little 5ml syringe up with 50/50 ACV (organic with the mother) and water, getting it down my cat was a challenge, but before we even finished the first syringe he peed all over me. Never thought I'd be so happy to have my cat pee all over me! He had taken a turn for the worse, had vomited once and was pooping on things, because he was trying to pee so hard and couldn't, so we were quite desperate. Almost instant relief! So grateful for this article! Thank you!

Replied by Nash
Seattle
04/06/2017

How large is your cat? I'm not sure how much to give to my cat. he's around 7 lbs or so.


Posted by Cindymc (Cleveland, Ohio) on 02/26/2017
5 out of 5 stars

My son adopted the best cat ever from our local shelter. Sadly he has had some health issues and was underweight. He has never peed outside the litterbox in all nearly 3 years we've had him (he is almost 5yrs old now). He was getting frequent uti's and bleeding allover, straining to pee, crying in pain, laying in the bathtub for the coolness. We took him to the vet (cha ching $$$$$) she put him on a special diet (more $$$$). he ended up getting the uti again, and I found this site, tried the emergency apple cider vinegar method using organic ACV with mother, then every few hours...with a couple days healed!

This was over a year ago, he has not had another uti since and is eating quality food we buy locally, with is way more affordable than the what the vet sells. I highly recommend ACV. I thought it was worth a try before running to the vet$$.


Posted by Steph (Edmonton, Alberta ) on 01/29/2017
4 out of 5 stars

So my 2 year old cat began straining to pee last night. He was trying to per in every corner of the house but nothing was happening. So I began to panic. He's never had problems before and all I kept reading was that he was going to die and it's a hefty bill if I brought him in. So torn up and frustrated, as I couldn't afford to bring him in, I turned to google for home remedies. Ran out to the 24 hour grocery store, bought acv. Gave him a dose and waited. Stayed up til 5am and nothing happened, gave another dose. 5 hours later, still nothing and now he's throwing up and looking lethargic. But then suddenly, he peed. Not in the box but he peed quite a bit. This continued for about 20 mins. Just continuously peeing but not going in the box. I was so happy to see him finally have relief. But now my concern is is lack of control of his bladder. It's about 24 hrs since his first dose and he's looking better but is dribbling and not making an effort to use to box. He'll use it if I put him in it but he won't choose it. And will dribble if I pick him up. Is this just because he was so stressed and maybe this will get better with time? There's no blood, so that's also a bonus. But is this another issue? Or is this progress and things might look brighter with more time and doses? My poor kitty. I would love to get some feed back or opinions

Replied by Kellye
Tx
03/17/2017

Steph, my cat had a similar problem. When the dams finally burst, so to speak, he became urinary incontinent for a couple days; pee would just leak out of him wherever he happened to be. He spent most of that time sleeping or lying around. It did clear up on its own eventually.


Posted by Dnzk (Md) on 01/23/2017
4 out of 5 stars

More than 2 years ago, my husband and I spent more $1000.00 vet bill to have our ragdoll cat Manuel unblocked and treated. Manuel was in agony, can't pee and was crying. He was hopsitalized for 3 days, after discharged he still was suffering. I researched and found vitamin, vet's + best supplements and gave it to manuel twice a day as well as hydrate him water by syringe. It helped and what a relief. Then I work full time and I wasn't able to give Manuel his supplement daily. Last week he started having bladder problem. I cant handle to see Manuel having urinary trouble.

I found this ACV, plus put back Manuel vitamin C, Vet's + Best Urinary Tract support, and natural pet Urinary Tract Irritations cat supplement, thank goodness it help. Manuel is peeing regularly as well as has BM regularly. Well, he didn't like like the taste of the water with ACV but force hydrate him. Bringing him back to vet it's sighing $$$$$$$$ bills...


Posted by Virginia (Jay, Oklahoma ) on 01/08/2017
5 out of 5 stars

Cat's on her way to getting better!

I have spent $150 in the past month at the vet trying to clear a UTI in my 8 yr old Manx, Cleopatra 'Cleo'. She won't use the litter box to urinate which is a also a sign of a UTI, so I understand. I put adult size bed pads cut in half by the box and she uses that. So I see how clear or how much blood is in the urine. Right now it is pure drops of blood. She uses the box for everything else.

just back from Walmart with ACV and canned cat food. The water bowl which another cat and small dog share now has the vinegar added. I even took a glass with water as prescribed on the bottle. Very healthy!

The cats want the dry dog food so I put the dry cat food away, 😂 now the dog is wondering what's going on. Now everyone is going to learn that there is a dinner time, sigh, and the cats don't want wet food at all... But eventually they will when they are hungry!

I'm giving 10cc of the 1/10 ratio of vinegar to water every hour today and will drop to 3 times a day tomorrow.

Oh, Cleo now runs when she sees me with a syringe....yikes!

Replied by In Bliss
A
01/11/2017

Hello Everyone

Thanks a lot earth clinic for these remedies and each one of you for your reviews.

QUESTION

I have a 2 year old male cat who recently wasn't able to pee and we had get him unblocked and he was on catheter for 4 days...After that he was on medication so his bladder can get back its elasticity...few days later his urine was cultured and there was an infection...so he was on antibiotics...Once the course was over I found earth clinic and started giving him ACV but I was giving very small doses(3ml of Standard Dose 4 times a day). It still worked and he was peeing much better than he had in a month.

Right now he is on Pain Medication and muscle relaxant and I have started a ACV in higher amount since today morning(12 ml of Standard Dose every hour)...

Can someone please tell me if it okay to give ACV with medicine????

Replied by Evelyn
Rhode Island
01/14/2017

It's only vinegar. That would be like you wondering if you could eat salad dressing made with vinegar while you were on medication. Vets and doctors routinely mix several different medications together, sometimes to treat one problem. The ACV has cured my cat of a UTI a couple of times and we're currently working on another one right now :/

Replied by Paru
Ca
01/17/2017

Thanks Evelyn I did continue ACV with medicine....he keeps visiting litter box every 2 min for some time when I give him ACV...He is off medicine now...Just ACV....Hope to see the results soon... Also I give him ACV (standard dosage)using syringe...generally 3-4 syringes(3ml syringe) every 2 to 3hrs...Is there any other way of giving him ACV(he doesn't eat it in food)

Replied by Theresa
Mpls., Mn
01/18/2017

Hey Paru,

My cats readily accept ACV if I mix a few tablespoons into a can of tuna.


Posted by Krista And Mr. Pants (Mission, Bc ) on 09/30/2016
5 out of 5 stars

Last Saturday evening Mr. Pants, my 4 year old neutered male, started showing signs of urinary issues. My spouse found this site and he drove to the grocery store at 10pm and came back loaded up with ACV, coconut oil, cranberry juice and a load of wet food...

I followed the 1/2 tsp apple cider vinegar to 2 tsps of water. He took it from a syringe and did it because he knows how much Momma loves him and trusts me completely... I stayed awake with him during the might, each trip to the bathroom showed no signs of movement; but come morning he was gettting drips out and over the last few days, the amount of urine has increased and he is well on his way to being back to normal...

The thought of going to a vet I dont trust, and the only one open on a Sunday was not an option. We have been very dilligent, and continue to dose twice to three times a day....checking the box after each visit.

So nearly one week later, the Pants is running around being a brat again lol

This site and all of your comments, put my mind at ease and have allowed me to finally relax.

I am looking into getting in touch with a hollistic Vet, as there are way better medicinal options out there that we can get in our local grocery stores.

Cheers to all of us Critter loving humans

Replied by Tingting
Melbourne
10/15/2016

hi everyone, I'm really worried and stressed about my cat snowpea. he's got UTI symtoms since last saturday. extremely frenquent using the toilet but only a few drops coming out. later on his urine became pinky and red eventually. took him to vet to get a shot and some anti inflammation medication. his urine has increased in a few days but not the same as before. and the color changed to yellow. but till today he still pees very often outside the house and in my bathroom floor. and I noticed that his urine has turned red pinky again! He still eats and spent lots of time outside. but not as energetic as before and I can feel his stress. It made me very stressed! I don't want to take him to vet again as I know they would only put him on more medication and painful precedure maybe. I'm going to try ACV now. How long it will take till I can see any improvement? waiting to see the effect is so hard for me emotionally. How do you cope with that?

Replied by Barbara
Coatesville, Pa
01/08/2017

I have a 12 year old male long hair inside cat, Mr. Palomo. I noticed lately that he is using the litter pan a lot more for peeing, he does go but not a lot and it is very frequent and it takes him awhile to go. He weighs about 19 to 20 pounds .i was wondering if apple cider vinger would help him and if so will it also help with bowel problems too. If it is safe for cats?

Replied by Theresa
Mpls., Mn
01/09/2017

Hey Barbara, ACV is safe for cats. You mentioned frequent urination for Mr. Palomo- what is happening with his bowel movements? When I have to give my cat ACV I do it in a can of tuna - I put a couple spoons of tuna with a couple spoons of ACV and mix well and the tuna hides the flavor of the ACV from my cat. For a UTI I would dose as often as possible, and would even use a syringe to get her to drink diluted ACV - maybe 2 tablespoons to 1 cup water.


Posted by Cdelisle (Buffalo, Mo) on 06/15/2016
5 out of 5 stars

Thank you EARTH CLINIC! This remedy saved me another $75 vet bill. At first sign of UTI I came to your website and started my cat on ACV. I gave her 1/4 tsp. diluted 50/50 with water, 4 times a day to start and after just a couple of days I could tell she was almost completely better. It stressed her out too much to just administer like that so I mixed it with meat baby food (and additional water)and she lapped it right up with no problems. I also gave a couple of drops of kidney tonic mixed in. I will keep her on a lower dose to maintain UT health. Thanks again!!

Replied by Belky
Houston
04/15/2017

By 50/50 you mean Apple Cider Vinegar 1/4 tsp acv and 1/4 of water tsp?


Posted by Loosehorse (Belgrade, Mt) on 06/05/2016
5 out of 5 stars

My six year old cat, 12 pounds, on a rice and chicken dry food diet, came down with a uti. After reading the comments here, I forwarded the whole thing to my niece, who is one of the leading cat vets in Canada. She came back and said yes, ACV with the mother is the best thing, as no drug, sadly, is very effective for this.

Switched over to a wet food regime, including liver, plus 1 mm of ACV w/mother in a 2 tablespoons to 8 oz. water (well) once daily administered with a 1 mm syringe in her mouth and voila...she's a healthy, cured, happy cat within a week.


Posted by Nikkid (Omaha, Ne) on 10/27/2015 1 posts
0 out of 5 stars

I'm trying to cure UA in my cat that she's had for some time now. I've paid plenty to hear that she had been cured after treating her with medicine. I never seen any type of improvement in her health. Her urine is strong smelling and I was tired of wasting money on different vets. I decided to home remedy several things to help her. After a small amount of the 50/50 in her mouth, she immediately began foaming from the mouth and ran from me. Gave her some time and reapplied some more into her. Once again large foaming from her mouth began to happen again. Please tell me I'm not causing more problems to her by using this method to stop her suffering of UA??

EC: Hi Nikkid,

Contributors on Earth Clinic have reported success applying 50/50 (ACV and Water) topically on the scruff of the neck. Apparently it works just as well.

Replied by Sita
California
01/10/2017

My kitty threw up the ACV mixture and he won't eat so I am also having trouble disguising it. I have used it before and it helped a lot. So I am going to try putting it on his scruff. Anyone try this who can offer any other advice regarding this method? Thank you very much!


Posted by Darlene (Woodland, Nc) on 06/13/2015
5 out of 5 stars

My 18yr old cat displayed signs of a UTI last night when I got home from work and she is now symptom free. Her symptoms last night were: distressed meowing, squatting to pee every 2-3 minutes with little or no pee dribbling out, it was pink pee at first then went to dark red blood, unsettled and moving around (she wouldn't sit or lie still). She kept squatting over the air conditioner vents. You could tell she was very miserable.

Here is what I did:

1. Mixed equal portions of raw apple cider vinegar (with the mother) and filtered drinking water 50:50 mix. (All of our cats drink the same water we drink which is from a 10 stage filter we bought at whole foods for $100).

2. Used a 1.0mL syringe and gave her 1mL over a 15 minute period. I wouldn't give it to her all at once because it was strong! I gave about 1/3 then waited a few minutes. I gave her the second 1/3 then waited a few minutes. Then I gave her the last 1/3.

3. One hour later she was symptom free but I repeated the 1mL dose again to make sure she would be fine through the night.

When I woke the next morning she was cuddled next to me and purring like she always does in the mornings. She has not displayed ANY signs of illness since then. I went ahead and gave her another 1mL of the 50:50 mix and she threw up. I feel bad but I know now her body has enough apple cider vinegar in her system. I will switch her to the maintenance dose recommended in this article. I am planning to give this to her the rest of her life.

3 weeks ago I took her to the vet for the exact same symptoms and I didn't know what was going on (this was the first time it happened). I thought she was blocked and freaked out. The vet was able to gently push on her bladder and get her to urinate. That was a good sign because it meant she wasn't blocked. They analyzed her urine under a microscope and saw: bacteria, white blood cells, and red blood cells. The bacteria meant she had a UTI which explains the presence of the white blood cells. He gave her antibiotics Clavamox for 2 weeks. She took her last dose earlier this week. That's how I knew she had another UTI. She has no other medical history besides this.

The vet also explained that UTI's are common in older female cats because of their anatomy. Their genitals are close in proximity and if it doesn't stay clean they are prone to UTI's. If they poop and are not able to clean themselves well the bacteria can travel through the urethra and cause their UTI. It's the same for elderly women. If they wipe the wrong way such as back to front they are asking for a UTI. The bacteria travels. Just like in elderly women, elderly cats have a hard time moving as they get older and it becomes more difficult for them to keep the proper hygiene. To help with this I have bought 7th generation baby wipes (fragrance free) and I wipe her once per day.

On another note, I am switching her to a raw food diet. I have read so many good things about raw food and my boyfriend and I have decided to go with Nature's Variety - Instinct Chicken Formula. It's better to avoid giving fish to cats because it's hard for their kidneys to process it especially if they have kidney problems. Fish is not their natural diet.

Thank you so much for this site! I hope my feedback helps others.

Replied by Natrum
Bowling Green, Ky
10/16/2015

I am so thankful for the info on Apple Cider Vinegar for feline urinary issues!! My girl is currently having problems, and I started her on acv/water using the "standard" dose, then I saw there was a stronger "emergency" dose which is a better idea, since she is having bloody urine.

I am wondering about techniques, like wrapping her in a towel to keep her still, that I read, but specifically to what part of her mouth should the syringe/dropper mixture be aimed? I am afraid about her aspirating the mixture. (getting it in her lungs) Thanks for any feedback!


Posted by Locabella (Los Angeles, Ca) on 06/03/2015
5 out of 5 stars

Apple cider vinegar helped/possibly cured my cat! Homeopathic solutions are always a priority for me. So I'm constantly searching the web for cures to ailments that constantly seem to creep up, especially for my 6yr old, female cat, Loca. Though she drinks her water, and eats primarily wet food, with a small scoop of dry when I'm away, it seems Loca continues to get UTI's and/or crystals? After several trips to different vets, and prescriptions for antibiotocs that never seemed to have lasting effects, I gave up, and decided to seek my own remedy. Knowing the benefits that humans have from using apple cider vinegar (acv) with "the mother, " I decided to research it's affects on cats. Hello Earthclinic! I read how many pet parents used Apple Cider Vinegar to help their cats with UTI'S, and decided to try it. It worked!

Before acv, Loca was urinating on herself, and had crystals in her urine. After giving her half a capful of acv, with 2 tsp of water, mixed into wet food, for a week, Loca began to get better! No more crystals, no more wetting herself, and even her belly seemed to start shrinking! It sounds crazy, but it's true! She's even playing more!

I'm so happy to have discovered this site, and to have had such great results from something natural and affordable. Thank you all! I hope other pet parents can have the same positive results.


Posted by Sheila (On, Canada) on 02/23/2015
5 out of 5 stars

Once the UTI is under control, it's a good idea to continue putting ACV in your cat's food every day to prevent recurring UTI's. I did this with one of my cats and she has not had another one since.


Posted by Bryan (Miamisburg, OH) on 02/10/2015
5 out of 5 stars

My cat stopped using box and was meowing a lot, started trying to pee different places. He was able to, but it was bloody, got on internet and found this site, so we have started the ACV, definitely use the ratio 1/4 acv mixed with water, then mix in their wet food. I put a teaspoon mixed in with his food he didn't touch it, did the 1/4 acv and water and food and he ate it all. I have a 6 year old Bengal male. Within five minutes of him eating his food he used his box, will write another post in a day or two with an update.


Posted by Wendy D (South Jersey, US) on 02/06/2015

I've been reading these posts on the UTI for my 6 year old female cat I adopted from the shelter 3 weeks ago. Apparently she had this for awhile and she still is on medicine from the vet. The first week, she was given an antibiotic shot, pain meds in her mouth which did not go well at all and then they injected fluid in her back to get it to absorb and flush out her kidneys etc. Saw improvement but within a week, same thing again. Back to the vet.... now they gave her 21 days of pills that I break open and add to her food. So, we have about 7 left. Well, fine for awhile and back to this constant litter box, litter flying all over even with a dome top and staying in the box sometimes 20 minutes. Started to see an improvement yesterday and actually bought the ACV with mother last night. Issue.... the smell is something she won't tolerate. Tried missing with food, putting her paw in the water mixture so she would lick, wetted her mouth and paws on the top .......trying anything and something licked is better than nothing. But anyone have a suggestion on this smell to disguise it????

Replied by Theresa
Mpls., Mn
02/06/2015

Hey Wendy!

If soft canned food won't disguise the smell you may need to dilute it with additional water and then keep applying to the fur for her to lick it off.


Posted by Ilse (Chilliwack, Canada) on 02/05/2015
5 out of 5 stars

Just wanted to Thank everyone for all the info. on apple cider vinegar for treating cat urinary tract problems.

My beautiful 10 year old peach calico, Misha, is sitting in my lap purring while I write this. Last week I thought I was going to lose her as I did two of my other cats due to uti. Luckily I found this site and decided to try the ACV treatment. I did change the dosage as when I tried to give her the ratio that was suggested she kept spitting it up.

So I decided to try the recipe I have used myself for arthritis: which is : 1 tsp of honey dissolved in 1 cup of warm (not hot!!! ) water and then add 1 tbsp of Apple cider vinegar and mix well. I started by giving her the first dose of 1cc with a syringe that evening. She did not spit this up... and since then I've given here 1cc 3 times daily. By the next evening she had used her litter box successfully and was resting relatively comfortably in her bed. Couldn't believe it!!!! So sorry that I didn't know about this when my other poor kitties needed help.

Anyway...a week has passed and today Misha chased her ball around the kitchen for the first time .She curled up with us to watch TV after supper. She is eating well and "talks" to us as she used to. She also purrs again!!!! I urge anyone who runs into this problem to at least give it a try. For us and Misha it was soooo worth it. Thanks again to everyone!!!

Replied by Brenda
Kalamazoo. Mi.
01/10/2017

Hi Ilse,

Glad that you had some good results with Misha. Did you continue with a daily maintenance dose? How given and how often?

Thanks,

Brenda (and her black-and-white kitty, Rosie)



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