I read through this rather quickly & didn't see any mention of what dosage is most effective. Any specifics?
When you look at all of the reasons that Dr. Malcom Kendrick recently gave Dr. Mercola as his hypothesis that blood clots might be the root cause for arteriosclerosis and the resulting cardiovascular diseases, and then look at those reasons compared to melatonin in studies, you quickly see that melatonin ameliorates many of them, including blood clots.
Here is a quote from the above study:
>>> ' A single dose of oral melatonin was associated with lower plasma levels of procoagulant factors 60 min later. There might be a dose-response relationship between the plasma concentration of melatonin and coagulation activity. ' <<<
This is the same reason that Covid-19 is able to damage the endothelium and cause blood clots to form rapidly in the wake of the damage and cause heart attacks and strokes even in younger adults. It's the damage-causing inflammation and oxidative stress that Covid-19 creates against the endothelium. Stop that, and stop the damage in its tracks.
Dr. Neel's work illustrates that melatonin shows the potential to stop some of this damage from Covid-19 to the endothelium as his patients manage to avoid much of these complications.
Melatonin repairs damage to the endothelium until it can no longer keep up with the rate of damage being done possibly due to the age-related decline of melatonin production. Melatonin levels decline vary significantly between the ages of 40 and 50. At that same time, while melatonin is declining in humans between 40 and 50, age-related diseases, of which cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are included, are increasing as shown in this link that shows that men start to get CVD around age 45. Interestingly, by age 50 our melatonin level has declined to that of a newborn, the lowest level seen until age 50, and melatonin levels continue to decline even further after 50, though at a slower rate.
Melatonin level by age :
So it should come as no surprise that by age 55 the rate of CVD has doubled in men and by age 65 heart attacks and strokes become a much more common occurrence!
If what gets the initial endothelial damage started is oxidative stress and the resulting inflammation-causing lesions, melatonin is a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant and scavenges Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) and Peroxynitrite very effectively and melatonin has protective effects for endothelial cells and the vascular endothelium. It may be the most effective treatment possible if it stops the process in the very first stages and studies show that it may do just that even once the process is already established!
Here are the results of this study :
>>> ' After 1 month of melatonin treatment, the mean level of ICAM, VCAM, and CRP showed a statistically significant decrease in the case group. On the other hand, the mean level of VCAM increased significantly in the control group. The mean levels of CRP and ICAM were also increased in the control group, but the difference did not reach the significant threshold. With respect to NO, there was a statistically significant increase in the case group, while there was a statistically significant decrease in serum NO in the control group.
The results of this study suggested that melatonin may have beneficial effects on endothelial oxidative stress even in patient with severe and advanced atherosclerosis. ' <<<
I wrote two articles on this very subject for EC in 2020 and 2021 here:
The point of all of this is that preventing or treating atherosclerosis should alleviate many cardiovascular events in our lives and it seems appropriate that our own bodies produce a substance, melatonin, that can do this very well!
Here is a relevant quote from the study :
>>> ' MLT alleviated endothelial injury by inhibiting inflammatory response, oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in atherosclerosis. Of note, MLT exerted strongly inhibitory effect on cellular senescence in aging-related vascular endothelial cells in atherosclerosis. In addition, MLT had a positive improvement on telomere length and telomerase activity, which might partly explain the potential mechanism by which MLT attenuated senescence in atherosclerosis. ' <<<
We may need to compensate for the age related decline of melatonin, either through supplementing or natural means for those who can't supplement melatonin, or, both supplement and natural means. I discuss two ways for you to naturally stimulate melatonin production in the following article :
Melatonin is made in every mitochondrion in the body and mitochondria are in all cells of the body except red blood cells, but even red blood cells produce melatonin! Melatonin is produced in the brain via the pineal gland and it is also produced in the gut at a rate that is said to be at least 400 times that of the pineal gland. The rate of production in the mitochondria eclipses that of the gut. Melatonin receptors are found throughout the body.
These are all huge clues as to how important melatonin is to our health. It is the same for animals who also naturally produce melatonin. It is also the same for plant life who flourish on melatonin. We do not currently know all that melatonin does to protect our health, but what we already know is that when we have higher levels of melatonin when we are younger, we are also healthier. It may be a coincidence, but studies confirm the positive health effects of melatonin. Melatonin's decline in production inversely mirrors the rise of age related diseases and declining health.
The importance of all of this is that heart disease is the number one killer in the world for both men and women!
Melatonin protects our bodies in so many ways and because of that, it might be a good idea for us to do everything that we practically can in order to help bolster our declining levels of melatonin. Cardiovascular disease is just the tip of the iceberg!