"A chalazion, also known as a meibomian gland lipogranuloma, is a cyst in the eyelid that is caused by inflammation of a blocked meibomian gland, usually on the upper eyelid. Chalazions differ from styes (hordeolums) in that they are more painful than styes, and in size (chalazia tend to be larger than styes). A chalazion or meibomian cyst could take months to fully heal with treatment and could take years to heal without any."
|Apple Cider Vinegar||5 YEAS|
02/19/2012: Julie from Kiel, Wisconsin: "My daughter who is five years old has had a chalazion for a couple of years. I did all that I read to do; used warm compresses and washed eye out, etc, but did not seem to help. I bought over the counter natural allergy drops for the eyes and it is clearing up very nicely! "Replies
03/20/2012: Antonio from Vega Alta, Pr replies: "My 5yr old has had it for almost 1yr doing compresses and johnsons baby shampoo and flax oil but no difference yet. What drops did you use exactly?"
06/10/2012: One Year And Standing from D.c., D.c. Usa replies: "Did she ever reply back to you? What specific drops? Why did she not think to state the specific drops?"
07/14/2012: Michel from Hillsboro, Oregon replies: "Go to a rite aid or a similar type of store and ask for eye drops to get rid of styes- they're similar and thats what I got. U cant find a eye drop that say chalazion on it probably cuz most people dont know what it is."
09/28/2012: Miyanda from Livingstone, Southern Province replies: "Hi, thanks for the site, I have a chalazion for 3 months now, it started small but steadly growing and am afraid it could grow bigger, my request is a specific name of drops that can help in case we don't have it in Zambia, I can try elsewhere. Thank you."
Apple Cider Vinegar
[YEA] 07/05/2013: Frances from London, United Kingdom: "Dear Earth Clinic, I have never posted before but would like to add this to the Chalazion page if possible.
I'm a 23 year old female suffering from bad hay fever, under a lot of stress recently following 8 months of job hunting and family issues. These past few weeks I have had a very poor diet with a high sugar intake and lots of caffeine. I was rubbing my eyes a lot to relieve the itchiness of the hay fever. Last week, I woke up feeling like my upper eyelid on my left eye had been punched in the night and now bruised: looking in the mirror, the eyelid was swollen to twice the size of the other eye, and was red in colour. The whole eyelid up to the browbone was extremely painful when I touched it, and a definite lump was forming under the eyelid. Also, the eye would only open half way. With a big job interview coming up and my birthday a few days away, my heart sank.
I waited for 4 hours to see the Eye Specialist in the local Eye Clinic, who said I had a chalazion and that they would surgically remove it by incision after 2 weeks, and that I should "put hot water on it" in the meantime (he refused to elaborate). I was prescribed eyedrops containing 1% chloramphenicol and instructed to use once daily for the next fortnight. Looking online, I was very disinclined to have surgery, as I am very squeamish and also, many people reported having further chalazions as little as weeks after the op. Days passed, and the swelling got redder and larger.
I read up about chalazions thoroughly online and especially on Earth Clinic, and decided a lifestyle change was in order. After readings hundreds of testimonials, I decided that apple cider vinegar was the most likely option.
Here was my regimen:
1. I bought a bottle of organic apple cider vinegar, making sure to find one 'with the mother' as this is said to be the most effective sort.
2. I put 2 tsp apple cider vinegar in cup (100ml) of very hot (near boiling) water, and used cotton wool to soak a little up. I then held it against my eye for a good minute or two, before gently moving the pad down away from the nose. I did this 3 times a day that week.
3. Later in the day, I would use green and black tea bags as hot compresses, and these seemed to help the swelling. I did this 3 times a day also.
4. Also, I started drinking 2 tablespoons apple cider vinegar in a pint of warm water twice a day.
5. I completely cut out sugar, alcohol and fast food.
This regimen completely CURED my chalazion in the space of 5 days - I woke up on the 3rd day with a small amount of yellow gunk holding my eye shut, but it easily washed away and my eye looked better. Each day for 4 days I would find this gunk in my eyelashes, and would wash it away to reveal my eyelid becoming less and less irritated and red. Success!
Slowly and surely, sticking to the above regimen, my eye got better and I didn't need the horrible surgery. I would say that putting apple cider vinegar on a HOT water covered cotton pad was doubly effective, as it sped up the healing process. I have continued to drink the Apple Cider Vinegar since then, and am a sworn Apple Cider Vinegar fan ever since."Replies
08/28/2013: Monica from Texas replies: "Hi, my daughter currently has a chalazion, she is four years old. I'm aware of the healing benefits of ACV, I have some here at home, but I'm weary of using it on her eyes. She wouldn't stand a HOT cotton ball on her eye. Does it need to be hot, or is warm alright? Also, how long is the cotton ball/ACV left on the chalazion and should the ACV be rinsed off the eye afterwards?
I should probably do it while she is sleeping, but I'm wondering if just the once per night is enough to get rid of the chalazion."
08/28/2013: De from Australia replies: "Personally I would not put ACV into her eye. Hot or warm compressors of water will help to hasten healing. It will heal itself if left alone. You could apply a warm compress while she is asleep."
09/04/2013: Holly from Kent replies: "Thank you so much for taking the time to write about your remedy. We will be trying it ourselves; we have no confidence in the medical practitioners here in the UK and always try to find a home/natural remedy. We take full responsibility for the outcome!People who share this knowledge are as friends :)
Wishing you happiness and good health. From Holly in Kent England."
04/11/2013: Leona from London, England: "i'm from london and this is the fourth chalazion I have had. First, I was supposed to have it operated but it just came back on the other eye, I tryed gold and compresses, it worked, but now it doesnt work. How long does it take to go away with the apple cider vinegar?"Replies
[YEA] 07/09/2013: Frances from London, Uk replies: "For me I was diagnosed on Monday, and cured by Friday: I stayed in for a few days so as to have constant access to a kettle for the very hot water, and just took it easy, applying the hot apple cider vinegar compresses at least 3 times a day, cutting out sugar, and drinking Apple Cider Vinegar in water (amount specified in the post above), plus the hot tea bags directly over the lid for 2-3 minutes at a time. Keen to hear if this works for anyone else."
[YEA] 09/05/2011: Sheila from San Diego, Ca: "I whole-heartedly believe it was the diluted ACV drink that began the healing process for my chalazion on the left eye margin (bottom rim of eye). Since June I've been drinking diluted ACV on and off, not daily, just when I remember to. On a regular basis 3-4 times a week though, I've been using diluted ACV as a facial toner to swipe on my face with a cotton ball. As I do this, my eyes are closed and swipe where the lids meet with the ACV cottonball. Use one side of the cottonball for one eye, then the other side for the other. This is a precaution to keep from contaminating one or the other eye if one is infected with anything.
There is no more exterior trace of the chalazion. The only evidence I see is a tiny, darker pink spot in the interior side of the lower lid where the chalazion had been.
Take care not to overdue with soaking the cottonball, the ACV will sting if it gets into your eye--the cottonball shouldn't be sopping wet. Just one quick swipe across each eye, and then tone the rest of your face with the cottonball.
Oh yes! Start taking supplements that will help you maintain eye health."Replies
06/19/2012: Sheila from San Diego, Ca replies: "Update on my chalazion situation: I believe my main problem is acidosis. I just had a bout of pink eye, only recovering now, and consuming more alkalizing foods has made a significant difference in my visible health.
When I had a breakout of eczema last year, I can probably attribute it to pH imbalance, over doing on the alkalizing though."
[YEA] 08/17/2012: Jennifer from Arlington, Tx replies: "I went to 3 different doctors or 4 occasions for chalazions. This happened over a 2 month time span. I never had one before. I had the first one lanced, then a week later, I got another one in my other eye. I kept a warm compress on it as I had done before, as well as using an eye wash and eyelid wash pads. The second one went away, then I got another one in the other eye again. I spend hundreds of dollars to see specialist and purchase prescription medication. Nothing worked until I added the apple cider vinegar to my daily regimen. I was disappointed that I spent so much money going to the doctor, when all it took was apple cider vinegar on a cotton ball. I'm just grateful it worked and I haven't had an issue since then."
08/22/2012: Daisy from El Paso, Tx replies: "How long did it take for you to notice the chalazion shrinking?"
09/20/2012: Kamilicica from San Francisco, California replies: "How long did it take to notice your chalazion was shrinking from the ACV?"
09/28/2012: Miyanda from Livingstone, Southern Province replies: "This sounds interesting, I have one chalazion on my top left eye and havent yet visited any doctor, how ever, I will try the ACV as well, thank you and God bless."
10/17/2012: Steven from New York, Ny replies: "After swiping your eyelids with the cotton ball, do you rinse your eyelids right afterwards while your eyes are still closed?"
11/02/2012: Pax from Houston, Tx replies: "I had mine in June 2012. Now, I am free."
11/30/2012: Help from A-town, Pa replies: "Exactly what kind of ACV did you use... Im 16 and im like crying everyday because I have one on my upper right eyelid... I hate it I had it for probably 3-4 months... :C help"
[YEA] 03/14/2013: Sammy from Kuwait replies: "Hi everyone, I was fed up from getting continuous chalazions not until I took your regimen and tried it. I must say that I have spent around 1500 dollars removing them surjically. But I tried the vinegar part and oh my God it is disappeariing day by day.
However, I soak an ear pad the one you clean your ear with and apply it directly to the chalazion. It stings for a while but after that it sort of pulls the pus in the chalazion and allows it to float on top of it forming a head. From here the chalazion oozes and become smaller and smaller each day. I apply Garlic Vinigar on it not apple cider. Anyhow I think any form of vinigar will work.
Thanks so much for this as my chalazion is disappearing thanks to you ;)
Sammy from Kuwait"
[YEA] 07/08/2013: Betty from Jonesboro, Ga: "For chalazions: Boil an egg then wrap in a clean dry wash towel while the egg it still hot. Place the towel on eye with the chalazion for 15mins a day. Guarantee the chalazion will be gone completely within a week.. It worked for me and others."
Breast Milk/ Milk
[YEA] 11/14/2012: Relief from West Coast, Ca: "Son is 14 and has had 2 chalazions: at 7 months old baby dr exam, dr said she 'just came from a seminar that taught a terrific new infant massage therapy' and pressed her knuckle hard into my son's left eye socket saying she was massaging the bone?! I grabbed him and left. Next day his eyelid center had half-inch ball-shaped chalazion. Crying painful, pushing into eyeball, couldn't open lid or blink. 3 days later, it seemed larger. Different dr referred us to eye dr who matter of factly told me he'd be glad to lance it but baby would lose his eye as dr never used eye shield or guard and baby still would have a good eye. Instead, I took baby home, put gentle moist warm wet baby washcloth on eyelid to cleanse mucus and watering.
Called my mom (72 yrs old). She told me put a dab breastmilk or room temp regular whole milk on chalazion. Within an hour, swelling reduced. I reapplied again, then a very slightest dab aloe liquid from my garden plant. Next day, chalazion was half size. In 2 days more it was gone forever, no scar. At 14 he had an identical chalazion lump grow to cover entire backside of one earlobe. Since no pain we didn't pick, pierce, lance. After 1 month, it was about same size, but tender. We applied gentle wet warm washcloth to soothe and soften. It showed reducing next day after slight dab hydrogen peroxide, milk and aloe. Next day we dabbed milk, aloe, olive oil and kept it clean, dry. It is almost gone in a few days. Seemed these last 3 did most help. Thank you forever mom. Love this site. Thank you."
[YEA] 02/28/2013: Franky from Beirut, Lebanon: "Castor oil really works for a chalazion. It's better than any treatment. Just keep applying it topically on the bump everyday. It can take from 2 weeks to 6 months depending on your immunity. But it will surely go. Take 2 day breaks when using for more than 2 months. You can help your immunity by staying off wheat sugar and junk or fried food. Castor oil really really works. Please help spread the word to the people here because I dont have much time."Replies
03/19/2013: Ajj from Toronto, On replies: "Do you rub it on the outside of your eyelid? Or in the inside?"
Fish Liver Oil, Vitamins
[YEA] 02/24/2010: Jack from Scranton, Pa: "Fish Liver Oil or Cod Oil with Vitamin A and D
Been suffering from recurring and embarrassing Chalazions for many years, having useless surgery where they completely missed the Chalazion altogether or it came back in the same spot weeks later... Surgery doesn't unclog the problem, which is a blocked meibomian gland. You can even see them if you look closely on your eyelid, separate from the eyelashes on the moist edge of your eyelids, you see many tiny hole openings. Some will be filled with fatty white blockage.
Within 60 days my Chalazions were gone for good after researching Vitamin A and D from Fish Liver oil. Being deficient in both, I took two softgels per day for sixty days and by the sixtieth day, the Chalazions were gone completely, though it is a gradual process that requires patience for those who want instant results from the awkward eye bumps. Warm compresses never helped me unfortunately, as the doctor suggested. Hope this helps. If you try it, be consistent and don't overtake vitamins per day.
This is available at most stores that have vitamins. Now I take one per day and it's been over two years and no Chalazions have recurred since. It really worked.
Keep in mind, there is no instant solution other than surgery, which leaves a big black and blue mark, swollen eyelid for a week, and the glands are still blocked, so it came back in the same spot weeks later... The doctor didn't even mention that vitamin A or fish oil could solve it. I think he either didn't know, or rather have more business when there's more problems."
11/26/2011: Tony from Santa Barbara, California replies: "Jack, will regular fish oil pills work? Or does it have to be fish liver oil? Or cod oil? And what does the vitamin A anf D do to help? Thanks. Also was wondering why would people get the surgery if a steroid shot does the same thing pretty much? Or does it? I appreciate sites like these and all of everybodys input. Ive had this chalazion problem for almost a year. Started out as just one on my upper lid, then a month later the lower. Ive had them pop and form a scab, super annoying and embarrasing, I wear sunglasses at night, (people think I'm on drugs). Now there is two on my upper lid and still one on the lower. One on the upper has grown and is pretty large, it is sore and painful at night, why? And how did it grow? Ive been to a Dr. and researched the internet. I don't want surgery cuz most people say it comes back anyway and leaves huge scarring. Thinking bout the steroid shot?
Anyhow, internet research says chalazion will go away on its own but can take as long as a year or possibly longer. That's why I still have it, I guess, just been toughin it out, as its almost been a year. But it has gotten super worse!! Can't handle it anymore. And yes I've done hot compresses, but not that much at all, (doesnt seem to help). I started taking fish oil capsules, hopefully that helps. Thanks for reading, and I appreciate any input or advice."
Iodine, Neem Extract
[YEA] 09/09/2009: Carolyn from Central, Va: "After my doc put me on an iodine pill, my chalazions went away, except for a very tiny remnant of one that wasn't noticeable to anyone but me. A few months later, after starting daily doses of neem extract (10 drops taken internally), the remaining chalazion went away, as well as most of my rosacea bumps."Replies
04/28/2010: Taylor from Wilder, Vermont, Usa replies: "I've had a chalazion for the past year or so in both of my eyes. One stayed very small, only noticing it by the feel of the bump when I rubbed my eye. The other got very large and swollen, affecting my ability to open my eye. This only happened because it got infected, and I needed a steroid shot in the chalazion to reduce the swelling. It stayed away for a half a year, and now it's returning. I'm wetting a washcloth and placing in the microwave on one of those beanbag/rice heating pads and laying down with them over my eyes. Also, I'm going to start washing my eyes with baby shampoo mixed with water because that reduces the oil blockage without pain. My chalazions do not hurt as well."
04/29/2010: Tricia from Ireland replies: "My 5 yr old got one last August which we tried treating as a sty. This obviously didn't work.... Because it wasn't hurting her in anyway the docs advice was to leave it alone. If it started to hurt this would mean infection and then sonething would have to be done about it. So I decided to go with his advice. Out of the blue, on the last day of March, it just disappeared. Literally overnight. But her "eye allergy" started up within 2 days. Every year during April her eyes get mucus and itchy. We had her checked out the first year it happened and this was the diagnosis. She doesn't suffer any other form of allergy. I can't help but wonder are the two related. If the chalazion reappears I am going to try local honey to see if the pollen helps."
07/18/2013: Mmsg from Somewhere, Europe: "Does anyone have experience in using milk compresses for a chalazion?"
[YEA] 09/05/2013: Aishah from Oakland, Ca: "My 4 year old has regular chalazions. I notice that he is more likely to get them when he eats or drinks certain milk products. What I do now, is give him probiotics when I give him milk products. I also give him fermented cod-liver oil daily. These two combined has really helped him.
When he has an actual chalazion, I give him colodial silver and a children's echinacea for his immune system. This has helped decrease the time that the chalazion stays on his eye."
[YEA] 05/18/2011: Sheila from San Diego, Ca, Usa: "Unfortunately, I cannot say which of the remedies I have been using (for other conditions) did the trick to heal my chalazion. The chalazion appeared on my lower left eyelid a little over 5 months ago. In those 5 months I used warm compresses, tea bags, colloidal silver drops, rue fennel wash, etc. It would decrease in size on occasion after one of the above treatments, but stayed noticeable. My PCP recommended an opthalmologist, but I didn't want to see more doctors for something that wasn't an emergency so I searched Earthclinic.
In early April 2011, I started using the Castor Oil for the chalazion, and had started ACV as a tonic for my overall health.
I believe my consumption of diluted ACV (2 teaspoons in 10 ozs, once sometimes twice a day) did the most good, but I was also taking very low doses of Potassium Iodide (300 mcg a day), and I had also started using Castor Oil in/on my eyes (at bedtime, one drop swiped on each eyelid, or one drop in the chalazion eye.
Cautionary note: The ACV I consumed also triggered or boosted my immune system, and possibly raised my body's histamine levels. I've been recovering from a bout of Contact Dermatitis (Dx as per an MD), or a bout of Urticaria/Angioedema (self-Dx'ed)."Replies
05/18/2011: Sheila from San Diego, Ca, Usa replies: "One last thing to note, my chalazion is hardly discernible; no bump, but a tiny shadow on the eyelid margin, and the tissue on the interior of the lower lid is soft again with only some discoloring at a darker pink/reddish. I'm pretty pleased with my results... and no prescribed meds! Now I'm just waiting for a lash or two to grow back out at the spot."
06/03/2011: Sheila from San Diego, Ca, Usa replies: "My chalazion is gone.
There is a tiny bit of a 'scar' or discoloration on my eye margin, but my eyelashes have grown back in that spot, and there is no longer a bump. There is also no longer 'structural damage' as my PCP called it on the inside of my lower lid.
To the other things I was using, I added Vit A (25000 IU) per day to my supplement regimen, and as an added boost, I used one drop of colloidal silver on the inner lining for two days before bedtime to kill off any infection. I had used colloidal silver before, for pink eye."
10/13/2011: Yana from Utica, Mi replies: "Where can I get colloidal silver? Can I get it online?"
[YEA] 02/20/2012: Beege from Sonoma, Ca replies: "After reading about castor oil on this site, I had to try it, as it removed warts on my fingers as a child... I bought the castor oil on Saturday, applied it once then, once Sunday, and once so far today, on a cotton pad, covered with a warm gel eyemask, and a heating pad. When I got out of the shower today, the chalazion, which was birthed in December, was 3/4 gone. Props to castor oil."
06/26/2012: Shina from Abilene, Tx replies: "What type of Castor oil did you buy? Was it an eye drop? How long did it take the chalazion to disappear? I have one for 6 months and I want to clear it. I don't want any surgery. Thanks so much."
12/07/2012: Nina from Boston, Ma replies: "I've had this chalazion on my upper left eyelid for a little more than a month. After reading your comments, I've decided to try all of these multiple remedies (castor oil, applying the ACV and drinking the teaspoons of ACV daily, washing my eye with baby shampoo and added Vitamin A to my diet). I've been doing this for about 2 days as well as continuing wih the warm compresses. I'll let you all know if my chalazion shows any improvement in about a month."
12/12/2012: Sarah from Ottawa, Ontario replies: "Nina! DO you see any improvements on your chalazion? Has it gotten any better for you? I have been suffering from chalazion for the last 2 years. I have gotten several surgeries. I will try the ACV and the castor oil and let you all know if I see any improvements also."
01/20/2013: Alizeh from Winderemere, Orlando: "Best remedy for Chalazion? I am in immense pain right now :( Have chalazion on my lower eyelid. It's heavy, inflammed and really tender.. Puffy and swollen too. Please guide. Thank you"Replies
01/21/2013: Sarah from Ottawa, Ontario replies: "Hi Alizah, I also had chalazion last month and it went away in the matter of 3 weeks. I did the following:
1. I took salmon oil capsules with my meals. 2 a day.
2. I made a concoction which I drank once a day. 1/3 cup of milk, 1 tsp of turmeric powder, around 1/2 tsp (or a bit less than that) cinnamon powder, 1/2 tsp honey. I first warmed up the milk, then mixed the turmeric powder, cinnamon powder and the honey in it and drank it.
3. Then I did this before going to bed. I first washed my eye with johnson baby shampoo. Then I basically soaked a cotton pad in castor oil, put the pad on top on my eyelid where the chalazion was and then put a heatpad on top of that and hot compressed for 15 min. I did not wash my eye after, so I still had the castor oil on my eyelid as I went to bed.
4. I also went to accupuncture twice during my chalazion episode, Once a week.
So after following this regime my chalazion went away in less than 3 weeks :)
Hope this helps you."
01/22/2013: Alizeh from Winderemere, Orlando replies: "Thank you for sharing your tips with me. What makes me angry is that it reoccurs on the same spot every now and then. How should one get rid of this? Thanks a bunch."
05/25/2011: Sheila from San Diego, Ca, Usa: "I could seriously kick myself! Something happened to my eyelid margin in a matter of hours after having my eyebrows waxed. I had a chalazion which was all but healed, and now, after having my eyebrows waxed, the eye margin where the chalazion was is puffed up and discolored beyond the area of the former chalazion. There is tenderness in the area just beneath the eye too, like a small muscle ache.
I'm putting cool compresses on it now. It's not red, but I'm wondering what is happening and if there is anything else I can do before I visit an opthalmologist. Is there a file for pictures so I can post some on this?"Replies
11/25/2011: Kotami from Orlando, Florida replies: "This is the first place I come to look up remedies. The chalazion I had last Sunday(11-20) has nearly disappeared already (its Friday 11-25). All the white stuff is gone just a small pink bump remains.
I used the hot compress method faithfully for 3 days straight (2x a day) and also a boric acid based eye wash twice a day. You can find the eyewash just about anywhere. I also became very careful to clean the area around my eyes with a dabe of baby shampoo and water in case the chalazion was caused by blepharitis. I also used a rise of ACV (just a drop) and water on a cotton ball as well.
My suggestion to women is be careful about what you use for eyemakeup removal as anything too oily can get in the eye and cause problems. Don't use anything petroleum based!"
12/23/2009: Reeni from Jakarta, Indonesia: "I've been looking for an explanation for something that I have under my right eyelid. When I read about Chalazion, I thought this is what I must have. But saw some pictures of it and that did not look like what I have. I feel like a swollen gland under my eyelid but it is not visible like a chalazion, neither it sits on to my eye. It is in fact above the outer corner of my eye and it gives my eyelid a swollen look like a mosquito bite or a sting without any redness and without any king of pain. It is there under my eyelid for about 12 years. I tried to consult doctors in the beginning but they could not see anything wrong. one of them said it's a Stye. Does anyone knows what I am talking about??"Replies
12/23/2009: Dianna from Austin, Tx replies: "this could definitely be a stye that just hasn't worked it's way out yet. i would put castor oil on it. my brother had this and i started him with castor oil and it went away pretty quick. just pat some on there and it doesn't hurt your eyes if you get it in them."
01/17/2010: Reeni from Jakarta, Indonesia replies: "@Dianna from Austin, Tx. Thanks for your advise. I heard that styes hurt but mine does not, even when I press it. Could it still be a stye?"
01/18/2010: Sarah from San Diego, Ca replies: "My daughter gets styes and sometimes it is just a swollen area.. nothing red or inflamed that I can see. We always take a green tea bag, soak it in warm water for 30 seconds or so, wring it out so it doesn't drip everywhere, and have her lay down with the green tea bag over her affected eye. Repeat as needed, but it usually only takes a day or two to clear up. :)"
05/10/2010: Derry from East Greenwich, Ri, Usa replies: "I get styes once in while and have always used a warm tea bag (from a cup of hot tea) on them-an old remedy passed from my Mom."
09/03/2010: Wes from Kailua-kona, Hi replies: "I had a Chalazion, and it hung around for about 3 months, until I started putting warm compresses on it.... AND without disturbing the eyeball or inside the lid, I would GENTLY massage it a bit with a dull fingernail (BUT DON'T SQUEEZE IT) just to create movement... And 4 days after I started the procedure, it was gone.... Try to understand that your body is trying to heal it for you, but it just needs a tad of help on this one.... Most of all, believe in the Law of Attraction and know it is not a big deal.... Maybe some eyedrops too, by the way."