Cure of cognitive impairment of down syndrome may help Alzheimer's sufferers.
Changing minds is a protocol to treat the cognitive impairment seen in down syndrome. After only 13 weeks of treatment the IQ start to rise. Here you can find the protocol, a documentary trailer, testimonies and research:
and here you can see other fragments. Watch nichole who has a dual diagnostic of down syndrome + alzheimer.
keep in mind that The connection between Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease is complex. Studies of the brains of people with Down syndrome reveal that, by the age of 40, almost all develop the brain changes characteristic of Alzheimer's disease.
I know the protocol use 2 prescription drugs, but one is no necessary, the other one is prosac, and its main use is for neurogenesis= creation of new neurons with strong synapses. so there is possible cure for the cognitive impairment, and the article about the lithium is very interesting, looks like it does the same as prosac. exercise stimulate neurogenesis and THC also.
Ginkgo Biloba - In 2003, Stanford University discovered the main culprit, GABA receptor, an inhibitor, was ON continuously in individuals with Down syndrome. (View details) The result was- it did not allow the nerves in the memory area of the brain to fire. To get the proper level of GABA, a GABA antagonist was used to turn it down. (View details) Ginkgo Biloba is a GABA antagonist which has been used for over 4000 years (View details)
Prozac - The University Of Maryland School Of Medicine treated Down syndrome mice with prozac for 24 days (2006). It increased neurogenesis (the formation of new nerves) to a normal level (View details). This is like increasing the hardware on your computer. It allows you to run more complicated software. In fetuses with Down syndrome, neurons fail to show normal dendritic development, yielding a "tree in winter" appearance. This developmental failure is thought to result in mental retardation (View details)
Focalin XR is an ADHD medicine that increases focus and decreases impulsiveness and hyperactivity. It is a mild stimulant. As our children improved, we became increasingly aware of their inability to attend to the tasks at hand.
Phosphatidylcholine is a phospholipid that makes up 50% of the cell membrane. The membrane is the lining of every nerve cell that carries our signals. We are trying to heal the brain by growing new neurons and allowing them to fire. Giving PC is like bringing the bricks to the construction site when building a house. (View details)
Formulated with a 4:1 Ratio of Omega 6 to Omega 3 in Liquid form or Softgel pills.
Of the tens of thousands of molecules that make up the life of a cell, Phosphatidylcholine (PC) stands apart; probably the most important one of all. BodyBio PC is made of only pure phospholipids which automatically form liposomes in the watery environment of the body, but it goes one important step further.... it is also formulated with the essential lipids at a 4:1 ratio. Most PC currently available has an EFA ratio of ~12:1. BodyBio PC not only has a higher concentration of PC, up to 66% but also maintains EFA concentration at the preferred 4:1 ratio, a BodyBio exclusive.
Body Bio Balanced Oil
Body Bio Oil - There is a growing body of evidence that inflammation and degeneration go hand in hand. This oil provides the body with the building blocks to reduce inflammation and improve health. Link to references
4:1 Ratio of Organic Sunflower and Flax Seed Oil Blend in its Virgin State. Fatty acids are not only good for you -- they are ESSENTIAL! One of the very best supplement programs includes additional Essential Fatty Acids of Omega 6 to Omega 3 at a 4:1 ratio. This special formulation of organic sunflower and flax is now available as BODYBIO BALANCE!
Folinic Acid/ B 12 (methylcobalamin)
Folinic Acid/ B 12 (methylcobalamin) - Dr. Jill James has a detailed study looking at methylation and the need for these nutrients in the patient with Down syndrome. (View Details)
- Ginkgo Biloba - The dose is approximately 2.5 mg/lb for the dry herb but must be adjusted on the basis of clinical response and tolerability.
- Prozac - The dose needs to be adjusted in the range of 5 mg to 20mg/day on the basis of clinical response and tolerability.
- Focalin XR - dosage should be individualized according to the needs and responses of the patient
- Phosphatidylcholine - depends on age, check table below
- Body Bio Oil - depends on age, check table below
- Folinic Acid/ B 12 depends on age, check table below
There is a great deal of good research being done on Turmeric for Alzheimer's. Also my father is doing well on this, but he has also recently added BHT to his regime (in case of HSV infection).
Here is some research from Japan:
Effects of turmeric on Alzheimer's disease with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia
Ayu. 2012 Oct-Dec; 33(4): 499-504.
We describe here three patients with the Alzheimer's Disease (AD) whose behavioral symptoms were improved remarkably as a result of the turmeric treatment, which is the traditional Indian medicine. Their cognitive decline and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) were very severe. All three patients exhibited irritability, agitation, anxiety, and apathy, two patients suffer from urinary incontinence and wonderings. They were prescribed turmeric powder capsules and started recovering from these symptoms without any adverse reaction in the clinical symptom and laboratory data. After 12 weeks of the treatment, total score of the Neuro-Psychiatric Inventory-brief questionnaire decreased significantly in both acuity of symptoms and burden of caregivers. In one case, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was up five points, from 12/30 to 17/30. In the other two cases, no significant change was seen in the MMSE; however, they came to recognize their family within 1 year treatment. All cases have been taking turmeric for more than 1 year, re-exacerbation of BPSD was not seen. The present cases suggest a significant improvement of the behavioral symptoms in the AD with the turmeric treatment, leading to probable benefit of the use of turmeric in individuals with the AD with BPSD.
Just reporting back regarding my father who has Alzheimer's.
His Alzheimer's has improved nicely and has now stabilised. The improvement in short term memory and ability to manage conversations is quite noticeable. The most important thing is that the gradual decline has been halted.
He is still taking Turmeric regularly (the preparation they chose includes black pepper), and the BHT is no longer necessary.
My last post was in April, but I should add that my father had been on Turmeric for some time already. He has been using this for over a year.
In India alzheimer is almost non existent and cancer is more rare, especially male types of cancer. Researchers found that it has to do with the consumption of large quantities of turmeric (also known as kunjit) in the curry. Especially the combination of chilly powder, turmeric and cauliflower and broccoli seems to do the trick. If you prepare a curry don't just use the herbal mix form the grocery but add your own paste of vegetable oil (arachide, sunflower or sesame oil), chilli powder and turmeric powder. Wash and cut the cauliflower and broccoli and let them sit for 15 minutes before cooking, as this improves the health benefits.
It is NOT true!! Cancer is not rare at all in India, though certain types of cancer are rare (such as colon cancer). Also, Alzheimer's is getting more and more common - one of my aunts suffered from Alzheimer's before she died.
But Turmeric is a powerful herb - it is a purifier of the blood and it is very good for you. It is best eaten in its raw form, and also does wonders for the skin if you make a paste out of the root and slather it over the face.
It really is an amazing herb but one needs to be careful before making claims about the occurrence of cancer!
(Mountain View, California, USA)
All "research" that claims a low incidence of Alzheimer's in India is ERRONEOUS! Especially, it is amusing when westerners make this claim based on whatever "research" they managed to do. Let me clarify a few facts about India:
1) Majority of the doctors (not to mention the layman) in India are woefully unaware of Alzheimer's. Only in the last decade has awareness been introduced through campaigning.
2) Statistics in India about Alzheimer's is very skewed because of non-diagnosis and mis-diagnosis. Not surprising if even doctors are unaware of this ailment.
3) Longevity in India is around 60 years for men and 65 years for women. Put simply, they don't live long enough to get dementia or Alzheimer's.
4) In India, parents live with their sons as a rule. So, even the real Alzheimer cases are "kept under wraps" by the family and not really admitted to a nursing care facility. It would be tantamount to "abandoning" your parents or "exposing" their dementia to the world. Just not the Indian culture.
I am currently caring for my mother who is diagnosed with Alzheimer's after I brought her with me to the US. Prior to that, my father and relatives were complaining that she is acting crazy and is really difficult to get along with. But nobody even thought of it as a possible mental condition, they just attributed it to her "evil" nature. Sounds horrible, but that is the sad truth in India. Mental illness is often brushed off or ridiculed as if it is a personality trait. That is also why India is not very advanced in Psychiatry. Not because Indians don't magically have depression or other psychiatric issues. It is just that the society is not tuned in that well to these ailments.
(Manitowoc, Wisconsin, USA)
Thank you for your input, Ruma!! Could you tell us, is the water fluoridated and/or chlorinated there? What do you know about excitotoxins and free glutamic acid consumption in India? Has diet changed there like it did here in the USA from mostly homegrown, home-cooked food mostly free of pesticides and preservatives, to a lot of store-bought premade processed food? What would you say might be the cause of the rise in Alzheimer's disease in India?
Hi Connie. I am afraid that I'm not knowledgeable enough to answer the technicalities of your questions!
The Indian diet has changed but it's a complicated point because diet is entirely determined by one's social and economic class. Rich people tend to eat too much and do too little exercise, as a result of which they are plagued by many of the lifestyle diseases of the West (such as type-2 diabetes).
Poorer people don't have the money to eat properly - too little protein and vitamins in their diet - and just carbohydrates to fill themselves up. Even lentils, traditionally the protein for the poor, are becoming very expensive for the very poor in India.
The principles of the Indian diet are excellent and many can and do follow these principles, so it is not as if we have lost our traditions entirely!
(Emerald City, The Land Of Oz)
Just wanted to point out that the "NAY" above would appear to be more specifically against Turmeric preventing cancer rather than Alzheimer's. There is pretty decent research indicating the *likely* effectiveness of Turmeric.
Turmeric is the fourth anti-inflammatory shown to help Alzheimer's that I am aware of. The other research/examples are: A DMARD injected into the neck (very controversial), NSAID's such as Aspirin (not controversial IMHO), steroids (listed on these very pages)
EC: Thanks, Zark. We'll remove that erroneous rating.
I found an article on MSN dated 5/22/2013...
Vitamin B keeps your brain from shrinking, reduces Alzheimer's risk
"A new study shows that vitamin B supplements reduced brain shrinkage by up to 90 percent in certain areas vulnerable to Alzheimer's, suggesting the vitamin may be more protective than previously thought. Dr. David Smith of Oxford University, who led the study, said, "our work shows that a key part of the disease process that leads to Alzheimer's disease, the atrophy of specific brain regions, might be modified by a safe and simple intervention. " Others caution that there's no magic bullet against Alzheimer's..."
(Northland, New Zealand)
This might give a clue as to what nicotine (B3) can do and why the big pharma want in. http://www.sott.net/article/195249-Warning-Nicotine-Seriously-Improves-Health
I take 10 mgs of Biotin (over the counter, 10,000 mcgs = 10 mgs) 3x a day with food, I see my hair grow wonderful, I had issues in the past with tons of psych meds and I went nearly bald. Even Women's Rogaine did nothing for me. A friend of mine told me that her brother was diabetic and he was losing hair, I am borderline and my mom has diabetes, my dad had it before he passed away. I'm more than likely to have it myself. I was put on another series of psych. meds and I read up a lot on how it will affect the vitamin B in my body, it also said somewhere I read that my body will need more than usual with different vitamin B's. Biotin has plenty of that, and I do take 5 mgs more than the average person because I do lack it in my system. It helps with tons of awesome things and no need for a script.
Also along with this, I drink only 1-2 cups of coffee per day, I know my limit on that, it doesn't cause side affects and I read something on that regarding coffee with lower back pain (which I am diagnosed with chronic arthritis), something in that decreases the pain slightly, helps my brain function better. Most things I remember well like a memory from long ago. But I have trouble remember the names of an item like if I'm talking to someone I say "whatcha call it" and then the name of the item or object comes up. Not sure what that's about, but I also read Alzheimers can happen at any age really. I'm 43 and the following issues I am diagnosed with: PTSD, OCD, severe anxiety, depression and I'm 3 meds for those right now. It's annoying to not remember the name of an object when I see it right there in front of me or try to talk about it. But I can go back "in time" in my memory and talk about dates, times, years that pop up suddenly and I can even visualize where I was at the time.
The remember a name of an object problem started roughly 2 years or so ago and it's not getting much better. I don't know what else I can eat or drink that will help with that. I am allergic to orange juice and I don't like curry at all, the smell of that just is gross to me. If anyone has any other suggestions to be helpful (I read most of what can be helpful) please let me know. I can eat real oranges not a problem.. but with juice my heart will race bad and I don't drink it, apple juice is okay but I drink an okay amount of that, but if it's too strong like cider I can't, same thing happens if I drink orange juice.
There is increasing criticism of long-term psych meds with patients that do no get better and big med & big pharma getting wealthier. That's a loose for you and a win for them. I prefer a fair game of win/win. So, in order to get your mental health back, see if you can slowly wean yourself off the meds.
An holistic approach would include Nutrition, Positive Thinking, and Eastern practices like Yoga & Meditation.
A few suggestions to get you started right away. As for Nutrition, yes all the B-Vit are good but they need Minerals to form co factors and co-enzymes that fuel the very complex physiology of the Nervous System. So get the best Multivitamin/Mineral supplement you can find. One big area in enhancing brain function is Fats or Fatty Acids. You will need to increase cold water fish like Salmon, Mackerel, and Sardines. Coconut Oil and Flax Oil are great. Triple Strength Lecithin is great. Once you get weaned off the pharma meds begin natural brain meds like SAM-e, Tyrosine, 5HTP.
A small glass of Wine once or twice a wk is beneficial as small amounts of alcohol are very powerful adaptagen. To test this suggestion, take a day when it's been a long & tough at work and all the "to do" items pilling up and trying to get them done, get home and very exhausted, drink a small glass of wine (no alcohol with the psych meds). The Yoga & Meditation is also rejuvenating, and depending on your time, would be excellent to rotate with the Wine. These suggestion are powerful stress busters and you will be happier as a result.
There are numerous ways of improving your diet. In short, I think a good start in this direction is eliminating the top 10 worst foods in the modern diet, and increasing the top 10 best foods. I have been wanting to make this list for some time, but haven't the wherewithal lately, but you should be able to find a list on the internet somewhere.
Hope this helps and welcome your response and followup.
Uhh... How do "they" know that there's no "magic bullet" to treat alzheimer's? Has anyone tried treating it with azithromycin? A while back I was given some and it cleared my head, gave me a lot more energy, made my stomach feel better, fixed my depression, made me actually feel sociable. It is an antifungal. Please try it.
Azithromycin is used to treat certain bacterial infections, such as bronchitis; pneumonia; sexually transmitted diseases (STD); and infections of the ears, lungs, sinuses, skin, throat, and reproductive organs .Apr 30,2022
Zithromax does not work against yeast.
HI U GOD FEARING FOLKS DOIN, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
Just read an interesting article that equated Alzheimer's with the advent of mercury flu shots and folks that stopped smoking. The article had a graph of the last two and the advent of Alzheimer's. The graphs tracked. Upon more research, I learned that tobacco is an herb where our B 3 vitamin comes from. Research has shown that B 3 helps your brain. Mercury does not. The problem with smoking or chewing today's tobacco is not the tobacco, but all the chemicals that has been sprayed on it. That includes insecticides, fungicides, and pesticides. Only a few years ago arsenic was sprinkled on the plant to kill the boll worms. If you smoked you got all that garbage. I don't have a clue about nicotine, but now all the smart people are saying that caffeine is good for you. The problem with coffee is that unless you buy organic you are still getting the stuff that you did with tobacco. They spray coffee plants too.
I quit smoking back in '73, but I loved it. I now think that there may be a way to smoke and it actually would be healthy for you. It would have to be organic and could only smoke one cig after each meal or some other protocol . Anyways, this is a story of how greedy folks can take a good thing and make it into a bad thing. Hope this makes you think.
====OLE ROBERT HENRY==========
(Up The Creek In Wv, Usa)
Hay Robert Henry;;
What you need to do is grow your own natural tobacco. The hi-nicotine varieties that the Indians used as a sacred plant. then you could control the amount of pesticides and herbicides on it. I myself do not grow it, or use it, but I do take nicotine in the form of supplement pills. The Indians were exactly right; tobacco''s nicotine content is a necessary nutrient for the human body. They got their supply by smoking tobacco, that their creator gave to them. Then came the barbarians from Europe on to their continent, and killed them all, about 300 milion of them, except for a small remnant of them; and began putting poison on the sacred herb.
You are exactly correct about the true source of the diseases caused by tobacco consumption being the poisonous herbicides, pesticides, curing agent chemicals, put on the leaf by man.
They have never proved that tobacco causes cancer, or any other disease. That never happened. No experiment that they performed ever showed that.`A guy named "captain Joe" ( or some similar name) on the internet, tried to track down the research that proved tobacco caused cancer. He never found it. It don't exist. What he found out was that in the original research; the test animals were given cancer causing radiation in order to induce cancers, to the tobacco test subjects.[animals] So if I gave you cancer with radiation while you are testing milk out, and you get cancer; does that prove milk causes cancer? Of course not. And neither does it prove that tobacco causes cancer. What it does prove; is that radiation causes cancer.... which everyone already knew.
This is a case exactly like the cholesterol research that they have falsely reported on. If you go and find the original research clinical studies, and read them yourself, you will find the original research studies proved that high cholesterol diets DID NOT cause heart disease rates over and above low cholesterol vegetarian diets. The entire interpretation of the diet research was a fraud.
The Polio epidemic was caused by nuclear bomb testing radiation fall-out coupled to DDT pesticides. The Polio epidemic went away when these 2 things went away. There never was any polio virus. That was a fraud. People got polio from the DDT and nuclear bomb testing fall-out. It was the poisons, and not some evil virus creature., that never existed. Remember the news-cast films of the government employees spraying people and children with DDT as they walked down the streets of America, in the 1940's and 1950's , IN A CLOUD OF DDT DUST ?
Syphilus disease was caused by mercury poison. Mercury was a favorite medicine of the white man up until the 1950's, or so. All the symptoms of syphilus are the exact same symptoms of chronic mercury poisoning. Syphilus went away when the mercury was taken out of the food & medicine chain.
The same for aids; caused by man-made chemicals, and not a evil virus creature. Follow the money trail.
(Northland, New Zealand)
I agree with most of what you have said. But they did do some in depth experiments on mice to either prove or disprove whether tobacco caused lung cancer. They found out that the mice who were breathing strontium got lung cancer, they found out that those who were breathing Tobacco smoke didn't. When they made a mix up and put the mice who were breathing strontium, onto breathing tobacco, it was found that it protected them, by the fact that the mucous floated the strontium particles out of there lungs.
So the conclusion was that Smoking protected them from lung cancer. this of course was not what they wanted to hear. So the conclusions were shelved and ignored. Moderate smoking of the natural leaf, probably protects the smoker from a host of diseases, Bowel cancer. Parkinson's. Alzheimer's. Obesity. Depression. Schizophrenia. Pellagra. Asthma. There are many more I cant remember. But if self medication is removed from just these, we all know who stands to benefit.
If it is just the nicotine you are after, that can be found in many off the shelf products such as the patch, pills or even non tobacco chew. You seem to be going for moderation or the "a little bit often" approach many have found that difficult with tobacco products including myself. I do still think you would have side effects from the smoke over a period of time. Growing tobacco might make for a fun hobby though.
(Up The Creek, Usa)
What we are advocating is that you get yourself some clean, pesticide free, chemical free, tobacco leaf and use that, and see if that gives you niccotine and other tobacco nutrients; without the side effects of toxicity and addiction. Use the natural tobacco leaf without the added man-made poisons.
You do not have to smoke it. Chew it, transderm it thru the soles of the feet, vaporize it, grind it up and take small oral doses of it, etc, etc. Then see if these methods make a nicotine addict out of you, or not. Maybe you can have the good effects without the bad effects. Maybe the commercial products are booby-trapped?
Off the shelf products will be contaminated with the usual applied toxins. If you grow your own you will know that it is clean.
That is what we were trying to say. They are poisoning the tobacco before it ever gets to you.
I have also seen organically grown tobacco leaf for sale on the internet.
Here is an explanation of why this conception regarding the nicotinic acid form of vitamin B3 :
https://www.lifespan.io/news/a-summary-of-niacin/ Niacin was originally called nicotinic, the words NIcotinic ACid vitamIN.
A relevant quote from the article :
>>> ' Niacin was originally called nicotinic acid because it can be created by the oxidation of nicotine with nitric acid. However, people knew nicotine as the addictive chemical in tobacco, so the name niacin was used instead. Niacin comes from the words NIcotinic ACid vitamIN. ' <<<
I'm looking for some insight into why this would have happened. My mother-in-law has Alzheimer's. She injured herself in a fall and got a steroid shot. The next day we noticed a significant change in her function, it was almost as if she had reverted back to the beginning stages of 5-6 years ago, an amazing improvement.
Now we are digging deeper to figure out why this would be - any thoughts? Nothing else changed except the shot, no drugs, no diet, nothing else.
Any insight would be extremely appreciated. We would like her to not revert back, if at all possible.
you said... "I'm looking for some insight into why this would have happened. My mother-in-law has Alzheimer's. She injured herself in a fall and got a steroid shot. The next day we noticed a significant change in her function, it was almost as if she had reverted back to the beginning stages of 5-6 years ago, an amazing improvement."
The explanation is found in a paper written by a Vit B3 expert, Abraham Hoffer. He says that the cortisone shot stimulated the production of Nicotine acid [= B3] by the body..... thru the tryptofan to nicotine pathway. So the cortisone shot was acting to cure her Vit B3 deficiency, and thus the cause of the dementia.
The cortisone shot gave her some extra B3. Read the entire paper here: http://www.doctoryourself.com/hoffer_niacin.html
(Ten Mile, Tn.)
HI U HAPPY, , , , , , , , , told this story numerous time but you can check it out on the net. The U of Cal, Ervin did a mice study about 5 years ago where they engineered mice to have Alzheimer's , they then fed them nicianamide , which is Vit B 3. They all recovered in about 6 weeks. They were elated and said that they were next doing this with humans. That never happened. My ole boss in Wi., wife was having problems. We waited and waited and he finally called them. That trial was not to be. Like cancer, too much money to be made by treating, instead of curing.
Whenever I flub up mentally, my wife asks, " are you taking your Nicianamide"? My answer is usually , "No".
For all you folks suffering from dementia , research Vit B 3. The cost is about $ 4 a month. It is another one of those 'Merican things.
Time is neigh, =====ORH==========
Vitamin D, Juice
For anyone out there that wants to do something that works!!! I recently took care of a person with Alzheimer's when I first started helping she just stared ito space when you tried to converse all you could get her to say was "I don't know" started her on 1000mcg of vit D a day and 4-8oz of juice which is a mix of veg and fruit the strawberry/bannana flavor. Change began in less than a week she went from not knowing people unable to take care of herself etc.... To trying to do things for herself/ having meaningful/remanicent conversations with her spouse with in 2 months!!! If you have someone you love with this affliction try this it might not work as well on all I don't know but I have experieced it working on her!!! Oh yea take away all the useless alzhimer meds and traqulizers (only use for emerg behaviors that can't be talked thru) God bless you all.
(Fairfax, Va, USA)
I want to comment that one should take NIACINAMIDE in ONE DOSE per day, and NOT the time-release Niacin- as that could lead to LIVER DAMAGE.
Also, MELATONIN has been shown to reverse Alzheimer's. Therapeutic doses are between 10-25mg/night
MELATONIN has no toxicity levels and no side effects.
(New Jersey, US)
Vitamin E, Selenium
It's been shown that alzheimer's is caused by the build-up of beta amyloid plaque, which are abnormally formed proteins. These plaques are in turn believed to be caused by small (also abnormal) fragments of amyloid precursor proteins (APP). These fragments result when a signaling protein on the cell's surface is cleaved incorrectly by various enzymes. It's been shown that vitamin E can reduce the presence of these APP fragments and protect brain neurons from glutamate toxicity. It's important to take a "natural" vitamin E source. It's been shown that the alpha, gamma, delta, etc.. forms all exert an effect.
Selenium is also an important factor, all alzheimer's patients tested had low levels of selenium.
Most noteworthy is that pigs get a "form" of alzheimer's called encephalomalacia and the historic vetrinary treatment was vitamin E and selenium. Encephalomalacia in pigs is generally associated with a virus, but that may be a result of deficient levels of selenium, an extremely important mineral for the immune system.
Dosage: Vitamin E 1500iu daily, Selenium 400mcg daily.
400mcg is approx 330% of the RDA, and 1500 IU is about 5000% of the RDA. They are both safe at these dosages. Megadosing with vitamin E was only found to be problematic when supplementing with just one form. When the various forms alpha, gamma, delta... of vitamin E are taken together in fairly large dosages there are only benefits.
Take a good multivitamin/mineral supplement (the best and most complete you can find) along with the vitamin E and selenium.
(White River Jct, Vermont)
Alzheimer's has been linked to iodine deficiency as well. Not negating anything you said, just w/o sufficient iodine, other stuff happens that shouldn't and you get all kinds of health issues.