Health Benefits of Papaya

| Modified on Mar 22, 2023
Health Benefits of Papaya

Papayas were revered by the Indians throughout South America as an incredibly healthy food and natural medicine.  It is said that Christopher Columbus called papayas ‘the fruit of the angels’. Other explorers recognized how beneficial papayas are as a natural remedy for many ailments and carried the plants to other lands in their travels, such as the Philippines, India and Africa. Although papayas (or pawpaws) did not reach America until the 20th century, the US is now one of the largest growers of papaya.

What is Papaya?

Unlike many of the fruit trees we are familiar with, papaya trees produce fruit all year. The fruit is large, soft and sweet, with small, peppery, black seeds and orange flesh. The fresh fruit is eaten raw, cooked, made into jam and pickled. Papayas contain papain, a digestive enzyme, which is concentrated in unripe fruit.  Papain is an ingredient in many dietary supplements, meat tenderizers and some chewing gums.

Papayas are an excellent source of Vitamin C; one small fruit has over 150% of the RDA.  These fruits contain other antioxidants as well. They also contain A and B vitamins, fiber and minerals (potassium, copper and magnesium). The antioxidants, vitamins and minerals provide natural benefits to the cardiovascular system as well as offering some protection against colon cancer and eye problems. The digestive enzyme papain is used to treat allergies and sports injuries.

Papaya is also a high-energy food. It helps to maintain blood glucose levels, enabling us to feel energetic all day long.

Health Benefits of Papaya

Papayas offer so many traditional health benefits that it’s difficult to think of a reason why anyone would not eat them regularly. Papayas are one of the most delicious (and low calorie) folk remedies ever!

Helps Prevent Heart Disease

The powerful antioxidants in this fruit are an extremely valuable (and tasty!) natural remedy to help prevent heart disease. Nutrients help to keep cholesterol from oxidizing; cholesterol becomes dangerous plaque after it has oxidized and sticks to blood vessel walls. Fiber found in papayas also helps lower cholesterol levels. Folic acid helps to convert homocysteine into benign amino acids, further protection against a heart attack or stroke.

Supports the Immune System and has Anti-inflammatory Benefits

Vitamins A and C are great anti-inflammatories and aid the immune system. Asthma, arthritis and ear infections are just some of the ailments that are helped by this versatile home cure.

Reduces the Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

One large study found that 3 servings a day of fruit (not carrots!) may lower the risk of developing this dreaded eye problem. Eating fruit proved to be more effective eye protection than vegetables, vitamins A, C or E or carotenoids.

If you aren’t familiar with yummy papayas, try one. With all of these natural health benefits, it’s no wonder that millions of people around the world have made papayas part of their daily health regimens.

Isela Esther Juárez-Rojop et al. Hypoglycemic effect of Carica papaya leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:236

Zhou, K.; Wang, H.; Mei, W.; Li, X.; Luo, Y.; Dai, H. Antioxidant Activity of Papaya Seed Extracts. Molecules 2011, 16, 6179-6192

Multiple Cures

3 User Reviews
5 star (3) 

Posted by Dave (Fountain Inn, Sc) on 08/30/2015

I believe the use of the wonderful Papaya fruit is beneficial in so many ways. I just returned from a trip to Central America and like so many who travel...had some digestion issues. Papaya to the rescue. I also notice that when I eat Papaya I sleep better.

I even eat a few of the peppery black seeds which is believed to resist parasites.

Here's a blend I made last night. SO GOOD:

One half large papaya, one quarter ripe cantaloupe, one pear, five drops stevia, quarter cup of Almond milk and a few cubes of ice...blend: You get a beautiful and really delicious (mild) cool drink packed with enzymes.

Slept a long and peaceful night. Here in South Carolina the grocery store Publix carries Papaya.

Replied by Clatterbuck
(Beltsville, Md)

You're right!!! Quite by accident, I discovered papaya helps me get back to sleep when I wake up in the middle of the night. My grocery store had a sale on papayas and I decided to buy a couple. I had first tasted papaya when I went to Vietnam a few years ago and I liked them. I ate a small papaya before going to bed and slept through the night. That was incredible. I didn't have a papaya the next night and when I woke up in the middle of the night I had trouble getting back to sleep like I usually do. The next night I had a papaya before bed and once again slept through the night. These things are like a magic sleeping potion.

Multiple Cures
Posted by Dave (Fountain Inn, Sc) on 04/01/2014

I'm conducting some experiments using Papaya...the whole fruit and not just the pepsin enzyme pills. I'm hoping some folks read this who might also experiment with Papaya and see if they find what has impressed me.

First, I've noticed that eating Papaya (about five level teaspoons per serving) helps me sleep. I'd often wake up at 2 or 3 am, not with reflux but just "awake" and then had a hard time going back to sleep. After taking a "serving" of papaya late in the evening I noticed that my sleep patterns had changed and I usually sleep all or most all night. Also my dreams are a bit more vivid. I had not read about such an effect in reading about Papaya. (Attributable to better digestion?)

Second; of course Papaya contains the enzyme "pepsin" and that helps with digestion. I had also noticed that I could eat items that previously were taboo, such as milk products in any significant quantity, which caused me reflux. Same with coffee. I noticed that the negative effect from too much coffee is much diminished if I have two servings of Papaya daily. (A serving I'm calling five teaspoons.)

Next and third I notice I am "calmer" all the time. I rarely "feel" angst ... tensions that previously might trigger a sense of frustration. After years of fighting internal outbursts, as I've aged I have been pleased that those tensions have lessened in intensity but after being on regular servings of Papaya (perhaps 10 servings a week) unless I'm fooling myself, it seems I really am more relaxed. Even more than I have been which I attributed to just getting older.

I've experimented by eating various foods that were sure to cause reflux and when I do I eat a night cap of a serving of Papaya, no reflux.

Now to confuse things a bit, I have also been consuming WITH the fruit of the Papaya, the little black Papaya seeds. The seeds are peppery and provide an interesting "taste offset" to the mild soothing fruit. I have read in a number of places that the seeds provide an anti-pathogen effect (especially anti parasitic). I consume about 20 percent of the seeds with the fruit.

We are told in the Book of Genesis that God gave us the seeds for food also, and so when I eat fruit, if the seeds are edible I'll eat them too. So, in keeping with that admonition, I don't leave out the seeds of the Papaya. I first got used to the seeds by eating with a spoonful of the fruit, just a few seeds. "Wow, " I thought; "Those seeds will get your attention." But some folks may not be able to tolerate the seeds because they are "strong" tasting. I'd also like feedback from those who only eat the fruit.

Finally, as I've been regularly eating Papaya, it seems the foods that are gas producing, are less problematic.

Now, I know that the enzyme pepsin is acting as a digestive aid, but what is of great interest to me is that many other issues seem to be at work.

I'd certainly appreciate anyone else using Papaya and reporting back to the EC community to confirm or correct any of my impressions AND any other observations of Papaya usage.

I love Papaya mixed with Mango in a smoothie, by the way. And when I splurge, I'll mash up four tablespoons of Papaya in a bowl of vanilla ice cream. The mild Papaya does not overpower the flavor of the ice cream. Whereas, other fruits are rather strong and tend to "take over" the accompanying taste. There is such a wonderful refreshing mildness to Papaya.

By the way, again; I use either the small Papaya or the large ones. Both are effective.

Replied by Ed2010

The enzyme of papaya is papain not pepsin. Papain is a protein digesting enzyme. And papaya incerases digestion by stimulating the pancreas, Rich in Vitamin A. Dry papaya chunks are used as meat tenderizer by chefs.

Papaya is a Heat Producing fruit. Traditional varieties are more sweet than the hybrid varieties. Hybrids and GMO's have changed the medicinal properties of many foods.

Good Health

Replied by Mike62
(Denver, CO)

Dave: Thanks for the excellent explanation that encouraged me to try the remedy. I feel better. All us ordinary folk here in Rocky Mountain High think you are an enlightened knowledgeable wise man.

Replied by Dave
(Fountain Inn, Sc)

Hello Mike, my friend;

Re Papaya....

Tonight I ate a "hot" soup prepared by my Indian friend from Malaysia for my wife and me. "Hot" as in spicy. Normally, that kind of hot would cause some skin irritation, but having little will power in culinary matters, I consumed a big bowl anyway. And to counter the inevitable irritation, a few minutes later, I ate three or four bites of Papaya, cool and soothing. Now, 40 minutes later, I feel no irritation at all and by now I certainly would have. So....another Papaya story.

And thank you for the compliment about my standing among the "illuminati" at "Rocky Mountain High"!!!!

YOUR student,


Replied by Dave
(Fountain Inn, Sc)

Hello Ed from Canada;

Re Papaya enzyme...

Thank you so much for the correction; "Papain" is the dominate enzyme.

Another experiment with Papaya:

Tonight I used some chopped up Papaya in a mix of ice cream (butter pecan) and Greek yogurt...then refroze. Turned out to be a nice "ad lib" concoction. Creamier than normal ice cream and the Papaya didn't overpower the taste of either the yogurt or the ice cream. And the real purpose of the Papaya was to make the rich creamy desert I am not "hit" with an attack of reflux. We'll see. If I had not put Papaya with such a cream/milk based mix...unless I downed a lot of ACV before bed...reflux would be likely.

So I continue to test the limits of Papaya in digestive matters. I didn't eat the black seeds tonight so I am wondering whether that will influence the "test." I intentionally won't take ACV this evening just to push the "digestive" envelope.

Now some "critic" may suggest that I'm doing this "ice cream test" as a ploy, a mere excuse to eat ice cream.

How could such a hypothetical critic, such as my wife, think such a thing.

I am wanting to see the digestive limits of Papaya. And that is all.

However, I may have to test the Papaya digestive limits with various ice cream flavors...chocolate (with Papaya), strawberry (with Papaya) etc.

Just as a test, mind you.

For purely scientific purposes.

Yes, I am willing to sacrifice myself in such a "test"... for all to know the benefits. Will report back the results six pounds from now...ah....six days from now.

Big Dave from Fountain Inn

Replied by Mama To Many
(Tennessee, Usa)

Dear Dave,

Wow, your sacrifice for the sake of science and humanity will be remembered and appreciated by many!

Let me know if you find that Papaya makes chocolate chip mint ice cream more digestible.


~Mama to Many~

Replied by Dave
(Fountain Inn, Sc)

Hello Mama to Many;

Re Papaya and Ice Cream...

I'd forgotten about Chocolate Chip Mint Ice Cream!!! That most certainly will be added to the list. So far, with the CCMIC, I've got seven to test.

Wow. This is hard work.

Replied by Dave
(Fountain Inn, Sc)

To Mama to Many and anyone interested in the Papaya experiments;

Update; I continue to attempt dietary suicide by consuming ALLLL the foods that I KNOW will kill me.

Well, perhaps this is hyperbolae. "Exaggeration for the sake of effect"...otherwise known as a "lie" is OK if it has literary value. So says some philosopher of ethics I read one time. Can't recall who. But some philosopher must have said it at some point in time because philosophers say most everything.

Back to the point: Certain foods will cause me terrific problems; too much creamy stuff, too much coffee and red meat and for SURE; Reflux. I mean for sure.

ANY salsa and for sure, skin irritation is immediate; especially back of scalp...and burning eyes.

That scalp condition has been a reaction since I was a child and the reflux developed ten years ago.

Well, I have indulged; And my wife, intrigued at my new attempt at such an "adventurous" life style, her elbow on kitchen counter, head in palm of her hand just gazing at me as I stuff chip after chip laden with hot salsa into my burning mouth.

"What?" I ask as bits of salsa fall over my reddened lip.

"Just watching. And waiting. I have the phone ready to call 911."

"Very funny." I gulp down the twentieth chip. I choke a bit but recover.

"Push that bowl of Papaya and Mango over here. You're not getting the insurance money that easily, love. Watch this."

And with that, I down eight soothing...cooling spoonfuls of the blend of one Papaya and three much smaller Mangos, blended and then strained to make a thick, beautiful orange/yellow "soup." I do not dilute; just using a spoon I consume letting the mild, mellow liquid soak into my mouth before swallowing.

"There. Saved."

"We'll see." And she continued to stare at me.

I neither died NOR broke out in the slightest rash.

And as a further "update" I tried to induce Reflux by downing a huge container of Coffee ice cream. ALL for the sake of science; followed by Papaya again. (Mama to alone seem to understand the sacrifice involved ... bless you.)

No Reflux. Yet.

There has to be some point of excess that the Papaya can't overcome and I am determined, for the sake of science, to find THAT POINT.

AND; I have ONLY gained two pounds in this .... this experiment... thus far.

I am only doing this for you...dear EC readers. Testing the limits..." boldly going where no man has gone before..." Some philosopher said that too. Plato I do believe. Maybe Wittgenstein. The Later Wittgenstein.

And if that point...which I spoke of is reached...over some bowl of forbidden flavors, don't be surprised if my wife, newly attired in the finest of apparel, holds a series of "appreciation" events at a few selected sites...

And don't feel sorry for her. She'll be traveling around the globe for a while; overcoming her grief and looking for new "remedies" out of love and respect for her deceased husband; who died while looking for solutions to ailments...only trying to help those hurting.

Replied by Mike62
(Denver, CO)

Dave: Papaya make my desiccated liver taste better.

Replied by Dave
(Fountain Inn, Sc)

To Mike 62;

Re Desiccated Liver plus Papaya... just a star!

Wow...who would have thunk...Desiccated Liver- and Papaya making it taste better!

The only way to improve even that would be to make it into an ice cream.

We'd call it....

"Mike 62 Desiccated Liver Papaya Ice Cream Explosion"...

But hold on...before I rev up on the marketing operate off very strict dietary rules if I recall. Does ice cream fit within those bounds? Maybe we use Almond Milk.

Replied by Mike62
(Denver, CO)

Dave: I am not a perfectionist. I don't eat perfectly all the time. You could try Mike's mountain mush. Three of the ingredients are dairy. Mix papaya, non denatured whey, colostrum, and sour cream together. This would taste like yogurt because of the sour cream.

Replied by Bee
(New York, US)

Mike from Denver

What is dessicated Liver? I don't eat red meat .. don't like the taste of it.

So you eat 80 percent raw ... I try that but its pretty challenging but do the best I can..what do you eat cooked?

Replied by Bill
(San Fernando, Philippines)

Hi Dave...My congratulations to you on your experiment with papaya. A brave man indeed!!

However, I've got to say that I think that papaya had very little to do with your ability to eat those bad foods without problems. I'll try and explain why.

First, have a look at this link which is something I've quickly written that helps to explain how stomach acid and duodenal digestion or Main Stage Digestion are so crucially linked:

What saved your bacon was probably the lime juice in the salsa -- which raised your low stomach acid and triggered all your proper enzymes in the duodenum for main stage digestion -- such amylase, lipase, lactase, tripsin etc.

My reasons for believing this are as follows:

* Papaya contains papain -- which can only digest proteins.

* So how was your digestive system or papaya able to successfully digest corn chips(a carbohydrate) without problems ?

* How could your papaya digest coffee ice cream without problems(contains mainly lactose, fats and sugars -- not protein).

The only explanation must be that the acidic lime juice in the salsa was perhaps what raised your stomach acid levels to proper strength again which, via a hormone, then successfully triggered the secretion of all the proper duodenal enzymes and digestion without problems.

You could perhaps achieve exactly the same result by just taking two tablespoons of vinegar or ACV with meals-- which would also raise your pH stomach acidity to proper levels again -- thus successfully triggering secretion of your alkaline pancreatic juices and enzymes thus enabling proper digestion. But lime juice, ACV and vinegar are not the cure -- it only treats the symptoms.

To restore your stomach acid(HCl) to normal, you will have to supplement sources of chlorides to restore your gastric HCL. That's why taking Betaine HCl, Magnesium Chloride(Mag Oil), Sea Salt, Iodine, pancreatin, B complex etc helps to restore stomach HCl and digestion to normal.

The other reason for acid intestines can also be because of lack of bicarbs in the body and in the pancreatic juices. In such cases where the bicarbs from the pancreatic juices are insufficient and cannot neutralize stomach chyme, it may also advisable to perhaps supplement baking soda and water about an hour after meals(when the stomach has finished working) to ensure that proper alkaline to neutral digestion in the duodenum is also achieved for proper digestion to occur.

Replied by Bill
(San Fernando, Philippines)

Hi Dave...Just to also make clear that I am all for nutrients like papaya and dessicated liver. I've been taking them both for years. I usually take the papaya every morning in a smoothie mixed with other fruits like graviola(paw-paw), mangoes, oranges, grapes -- any fruit that's in season. This provides alot of the vitamins and fibre I need because I don't usually eat enough vegetables in my diet. Papaya clears out all the organic protein debris in the blood and seems to also help regulate my bowel movements every day.

The dessicated liver is also a godsend -- best multivit around -- it contains all the same vits and minerals as spirulina but is in a much more bio-available and cheaper form. Easily bought at any health or muscle shop.

Replied by Dave
(Fountain Inn, Sc)

Hello Bill from the Philippines;

Re; Your theory as to Papaya enzymes


Your theory that the citric acid in the Salsa which helped with digestion and not the Papain in the Papaya was a good one. But I just checked the label on the Salsa and there is no citric acid in it (extra lemon juice). There could be natural citric acid in the Tomato but it is the Tomato/Chili that I am VERY allergic to. And so any "citric acid" contained in them has never helped before.

You rightly ask and rightly question; How is it that the Papain (which digests protein) can help with Corn and ice cream digestion?

And THAT is just what has intrigued me. Obviously more is going on than protein digestion provided by the Papaya. Are other enzymes at work? Is the Papain relieving the enzyme production in my own body so that OTHER enzymes are more easily produced that are doing a better job digesting?

And, I think the alkalizing effect could be extraordinarily strong. So the acid in the Salsa/tomato products/ chili etc. is greatly minimized by the Papaya. THAT may not be an enzyme issue.

Now, back to protein; A cup of milk has 8 grams of protein. Ditto on ice cream. And the sugar seems to make my Reflux worse. But if I eat a red meat meal at night and eat ice cream too, then by 3 am, I'm awake with a "grinding" in my stomach OR...WORSE...reflux.

This is why I'm my own guinea pig. And I have asked if anyone else has results from Papaya consumption that could lend some insight to this discussion.

Thank you Bill for weighing in.

You and Ted are just the best.

Your student,


Replied by Mike62
(Denver, CO)

Dave: A handful of Indians were starving during a cold winter while being chased by the cavalry. Eventually they shot an elk. The first thing they did was eat the liver raw. Rats fed raw liver swam eight times longer because of special enzymes. Eskimos eat liver and blubber rare. Vitamin A is in the liver and Vitamin D is in the blubber. They knew to eat them in the proper ratio before scientific investigation. I eat Dave's Denver Delight. Tomato paste and, because of you, papaya are added to improve flavor.

Replied by Mama To Many
(Tennessee, Usa)

Dear Dave,

Your detailed observations are fascinating and informative. I am looking forward to risking some ice cream soon, when I can get a papaya in hand, that is. Thank you for your continued work for science and humanity! Your sacrifice will benefit many!

~Mama to Many~

P.S. My husband confirms that it is Star Trek that coined (or perhaps popularized?) the phrase, "to go boldly where no man has gone before." :)

Replied by Dave
(Fountain Inn, Sc)

Update on Papaya Experiment;

The Digestive Power of Papaya..

Bronchial "tickling" gone...

I've fought a lactose intolerance condition for over 30 years. If I eat/drink milk products I begin feeling a tickling sensation in my upper lungs area and what follows would be spasmodic coughing. If I eat too much red meat...the same response. It would seem then I developed a lactase (enzyme) insufficiency and a pepsin (enzyme) deficiency.

So I've been experimenting with the fruit Papaya and discovered that somehow if I consume Papaya I have no tickling in the bronchial when I eat the "forbidden" foods. (I'm OK if I eat/drink a "lactose" free milk or ice cream product OR if I take lactase digestive enzymes.

But I've reported to the EC community that I've conducted my own experiments....with me as the Guinea Pig. I have really PUSHED to see how far this phenomenon would work.

As one of EC's guru's...Bill from the Philippines... suggested; something else must be going on because the Papain enzyme in Papaya should only help with Protein metabolism. I agreed and so am amazed at the experiment's results.

This morning, for instance, I took half a Papaya and mixed with two small mangos. Added yogurt AND whole milk cream (whipping cream) and blended. I drank two cups of that marvelous ... lush...delicious concoction (not too sugary) but definitely real trouble for me because of all the "milk" elements.

Waited for the inevitable coughing. Waited for the inevitable tickling deep in upper lungs (bronchial I suppose). NOTHING.

So...I took the remainder of the blend and added MORE cream and cream. An hour later ... gobbled that up. Still no tickling in lungs.

Now I may have tainted the experiment by adding Mango. But doubt it.

Just a good news update. More later.

Replied by Juliana

I've read that papaya is genetically modified and every GM or genetically engineered (GE) food is changing our DNA. Here is the article on papaya entering from Hawaii to Canada

Replied by Dave
(Fountain Inn, Sc)

Hello Juliana,

Re GE Papaya

I understand that the Papaya coming out of Hawaii are largely GE changed ... not just by a better resistant strain to the Virus, but an actual addition to the DNA.

I also read that the large Papayas from South America are not so GE changed.

I use the large ones but can't confirm for sure if they are the SA variety or not.

Whether the GE issue makes a difference in the digestive qualities of the Papaya would be my issue as what I've seen so far in using the Papaya daily for a few months now has done nothing but improve my digestion in ways I'd have never guessed.

The problem of GE foods is pervasive. Monsanto has tried to take over the world's food production. And our own US House of Representatives constantly protects the GE industry by protecting the GE industry from potential lawsuits and just this past year the House snuck a provision into the Farm Bill that stopped the States from passing legislation (local to the state) that would require LABELING of GE foods.

The frightening thing is that the Monsanto take over with its GE change in seeds, has given "Round-Up Ready" usage to much of our food supply already. Probably all of our corn and the theory is that the change in the corn DNA can (especially the young) impact DNA in the human.

I have a radio talk show that comes on every Saturday on legal issues...94.5 in Greenville South Carolina and a year ago I spent THREE of my shows blasting Monsanto and the whole GE field for NOT adequately testing GE foods for their effects on humans. One study in particular came out of Australia that showed the carry over effect on humans. As I recall the thrust of these articles that I had access to were warning about the lack of studies on how the GE food would impact humans. The show comes on at 9 AM (EST). I might just bring up the GE issue again this upcoming Saturday. You've got me thinking about it again. (You can get it over computer: Google 94.5 Greenville and you'll just click "Listen now" and in a minute you'll pick up the broadcast ... an hour... mainly of legal info ("Legal Talk- Legal Traps").

Thanks for bring up the issue of potential harm ... harm in any GE changed food.

And by GE... I don't mean "strain" mixing to get the better variety...I mean what most folks think when they hear GE changed food...some scientist altering the DNA of the food to subtract or add some variant not found in the varieties of the food itself.

Replied by Bill
(San Fernando Philippines)

Monsanto has always maintained, through their own carefully steered research, that Round Up Ready GMO seeds are harmless and that they benefit the world.

In September 2012, research by Gilles-Eric Seralini and his research group in France released their results on the first ever major independent animal study on the health effects of Monsanto's GMO corn + weedkiller in their Round Up range. See here.

in the study, rats were fed Round Up GMO corn throughout their lifespans and it was found that 50% of all male rats and 70% of female rats died prematurely. The rats fed on the GMO diet also suffered high rates of mammary tumours and high rates of severe liver and kidney disease.

Seralini's research was deliberately completed in secrecy in order to reduce the expected interference and flak from Monsanto. He was right to do this.

Since releasing the results of this important independent research, Monsanto has mainly concentrated on trashing Seralini's research and his character by any means possible. His research has also been retracted and pulled from all major research/medical journals at the insistence of Monsanto.

Monsanto's vast Roundup Ready GMO range of products includes corn, canola, wheat, soyabean, beet, cotton, alfalfa, rice and many vegetables. See this link. Therefore you should really assume that virtually all processed food produced in America today, which contain grains or vegetable oils, are now GMO. You should also include other dangerous and similar GMO products produced by the likes of Syngenta, Dupont etc.

If you think organic grains and vegetables are safe then think again. The USDA definition of organic on food labels in America allows for 5% of anything as an additive -- including agri-poisons and GMO. This makes complete sense because most grain/vegetable crops, organic or otherwise, are now being discreetly cross-pollinated with non-organic GMO plants growing in their regions now.

Gilles-Eric Seralini is certainly a brave man. His research career is now likely at an end because of his independent GMO research results -- such is the God-like power and influence of Monsanto throughout the world.

Some research by Seralini on PubMed:

Long term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize(Retracted)

Answers to critics: Why there is a long term toxicity due to a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize and to a Roundup herbicide

A glyphosate-based herbicide induces necrosis and apoptosis in mature rat testicular cells, and testosterone decrease at lower levels

Replied by Bill
(San Fernando Philippines)

Hi Dave...Some more information which might interest you and help you in your ongoing papaya experiment.

Mango does indeed contain an abundance of protein digesting enzymes(especially in the outer skin). This fruit also contains many other helpful ingredients like quercitin, isoquercitin and gallic acid -- all of which helps against allergies. See this link.

Replied by Andrea C

The seed's from papaya are excellent for killing a load of different parasites and worms. They taste like black pepper pods, not bad at all. Love Andrea C xxxx