Editor's Note: We extend our profound gratitude to Dr. Laura Pasten for her invaluable consultation during the creation of this article. Her expert guidance has helped us incorporate unique, life-saving insights beyond commonly available online information.
Heat stroke in dogs is a grave, potentially lethal condition caused by an extreme elevation in body temperature. Since dogs cannot sweat like humans, they are notably susceptible to overheating. Recognizing the early signs of heat stress, such as abnormal panting or shifts in behavior, is critical in preventing the situation from advancing to a hazardous level.
This comprehensive guide serves to aid you in identifying symptoms of heat stroke, understanding your dog's innate physiological responses to heat, and learning essential first-aid techniques. Additionally, it will help you understand how to measure your dog's temperature, interpret various temperature readings, and comprehend the potential long-term effects and recovery timeline following a severe heat stroke. Moreover, this guide will provide crucial strategies and tips to safeguard your pet in hot conditions.
Heat stroke, also called hyperthermia, transpires when a dog's body temperature surpasses its standard range (101-102.5°F/38.3-39.2°C). If body temperature rises to 106°F/41°C or above, it may result in multi-organ failure. Heat exhaustion, a less severe form of heat stroke, can develop into heat stroke if not promptly addressed.
Dogs sweat, but not in the same way that humans do. While humans have sweat glands throughout their entire body, dogs only have them in specific areas, mainly their paw pads. This is why you might notice damp footprints from your dog on a hot day or when they're stressed.
However, the limited number and location of sweat glands in dogs make sweating an inefficient method for them to cool down. Instead, dogs primarily regulate their body temperature by panting, which allows them to evaporate moisture from their lungs and airways, cooling them down as they breathe. Some heat can also be released through vasodilation, where blood vessels close to the skin's surface expand to allow for more blood flow and heat dissipation.
Therefore, while dogs sweat to some extent, panting is the primary method to lower their body temperature. If panting is insufficient, for example, in extreme heat, or if the dog cannot cool down sufficiently through panting due to physical characteristics (like in brachycephalic breeds), it can lead to heat stress, heat exhaustion, and potentially life-threatening heat stroke.
Due to their physical attributes, certain breeds are more prone to heat stroke and heat exhaustion. With their shortened noses, brachycephalic breeds like Bulldogs, Pugs, and Shih Tzus may struggle to cool down effectively through panting. Other higher-risk groups include thick-coated breeds, elderly dogs, overweight dogs, and those with pre-existing health conditions.
Heat stress in dogs can rapidly evolve into heat exhaustion and, if not promptly addressed, can culminate in heat stroke. Here's how these stages develop:
Heat Stress: The earliest stage is characterized by a dog exhibiting discomfort due to the heat. The dog may start panting, seek shade, and show signs of discomfort.
Heat Exhaustion: If left unaddressed, heat stress can progress to heat exhaustion. Symptoms may include heavy panting, rapid heartbeat, high fever, and unresponsiveness.
Heat Stroke: This is a critical emergency situation. Symptoms of heat stroke may include collapse, seizures, vomiting, and bloody diarrhea. Immediate veterinary intervention is required.
Awareness of these stages is vital for early intervention and avoiding a tragic outcome. If you observe signs of heat stress in your dog, take swift action to cool them down and monitor them for any symptom escalation.
Dogs have instinctual behaviors to cope with heat, and owners should be familiar with these and the more severe symptoms of heat stress, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke.
Overheating dogs instinctively seek cooler environments, such as resting in the shade or under bushes.
Dogs near water bodies may try to stand or lay in the water to cool down.
Pay close attention if your dog starts pulling insistently in a particular direction or, conversely, refuses to move. This could indicate discomfort due to rising body temperature.
In dangerously hot conditions, a dog's tongue flattens noticeably. Get familiar with your dog's regular tongue shape to identify this critical change.
As the body attempts to cool off, dogs may drool excessively. In the early stages of heat stress, saliva production might increase and become thick and sticky as the condition advances.
Gums may darken to a much redder or even purple shade, a critical sign of heat stroke. The dog's tongue may also become pale.
A dog's lips retracting to reveal its canine molars can indicate rising body temperature.
Shaking or trembling could indicate severe overheating.
These serious symptoms of heat stroke necessitate immediate veterinary care.
Overheating can make eyes appear unusually glossy or bloodshot.
Heat stress can lead to discomfort and anxiety, making dogs seem unusually restless or agitated. Common signs include barking, whining, or trembling. A dog knows when he or she is getting into trouble and becomes very anxious.
This may indicate heat stroke, necessitating immediate veterinary attention.
This serious symptom of heat stroke requires immediate emergency veterinary assistance.
Unusual tiredness, unresponsiveness, or apparent weakness can signal severe heat exhaustion or heat stroke.
A hard and rapid heartbeat is an early sign of heat stress or heat stroke. Familiarize yourself with your dog's normal heart rate under cool and calm conditions to effectively recognize this sign.
Comprehending these behaviors and symptoms is key to preventing the situation from escalating. Any of these signs should prompt immediate steps to cool down your dog and close monitoring for symptom escalation.
Watch our video to learn critical symptoms and first aid care.
A swift and strong heartbeat can be an early sign of heat stress or heat stroke in dogs. You can feel their heartbeat by placing your forefingers on the left side of your dog's chest. If it's beating rapidly and hard, your dog may be distressed and require immediate care. To interpret this sign effectively, familiarize yourself with your dog's normal heart rate under calm and cool conditions.
This critical practice can help you promptly identify abnormal changes, facilitating quick cooling down of your dog and seeking veterinary care when needed. A rapid and hard heartbeat demands urgent steps to cool your dog and monitor them closely.
|101 - 102.5||Normal|
|103||High, Needs Attention|
|105||Severe Heat Stroke (Critical)|
|106||Potential Organ Failure (Critical)|
It's important to note that even if you manage to cool your dog down from these dangerous temperatures, you should still take them to a vet. Internal damage might not be immediately apparent and could cause serious complications if left untreated.
When the temperature exceeds 102.5°F, this indicates a higher body temperature than normal and warrants attention. A temperature above 106°F is a critical sign of overheating and requires immediate veterinary care. The "high, needs attention" range signifies that you should take measures to cool your dog down and monitor them for any symptom progression. If the temperature does not drop or symptoms escalate, seek immediate veterinary care.
There are several effective measures to prevent overheating in dogs:
Avoid Intense Exercise in Hot Weather: This includes high-energy activities that could increase your dog's body temperature, like running or fetch.
Provide Adequate Hydration: Always provide fresh, cool water for your dog. Ice cubes can be a great way to encourage hydration and help keep your dog cool.
Ensure Access to Shade: If your dog is outdoors in warm weather, make sure there are shady areas where they can retreat from the heat.
Avoid Leaving Your Dog in a Parked Car: The temperature inside a car can increase rapidly, even on moderately warm days. Leaving your dog in a car can quickly lead to dangerous levels of overheating.
Never Put A Hot Dogs Into A Hot Car: If your dog exhibits signs of heat stroke, heat stress, or heat exhaustion, cool your car off for 10-15 minutes before putting your dog inside a hot car. This is especially important for elderly dogs who overheat easily.
Use Cooling Products: Provide a kiddie pool for your dog to cool off in, or use cooling mats or cooling vests designed for dogs.
Remember that these measures are crucial in hot weather to prevent your dog from becoming heat stressed, which can escalate to heat stroke if not promptly addressed.
If you suspect your dog is suffering from heat stroke, immediate action is crucial. The first and most important step is to remove the dog from the hot environment. Here's what to do next:
Relocate: Move your dog to a cool, shaded area to prevent further heat absorption. If you are near an air-conditioned shop, take your dog into the shop and explain it's a medical emergency. Do NOT put your dog into a hot car; wait until the car has cooled down for 10-15 minutes, then put your dog in the car and take him or her to vet.
Initiate Cooling: Start the cooling process by wetting a large towel with cool water and placing it over the back of the neck, under the armpits, or in the groin area. You can also dampen the ear flaps and paws with cool water. Avoid using ice-cold water, as it can lead to shock. Begin with slightly cool water or a gentle shower.
Hydrate: Offer your dog fresh, cool water to drink. Never force water into their mouth, as it can cause choking.
Check Temperature: Monitor your dog's temperature with a rectal thermometer. A normal dog temperature ranges between 101 and 102.5°F. If the temperature is above 104°F, continue the cooling process and contact a veterinarian immediately.
Rubbing Alcohol: If water is not readily available, rubbing alcohol can be used as an emergency cooling aid. Apply it sparingly only to the armpits or belly, not letting your dog ingest it.
Prevent Hypothermia: Once the body temperature falls to 103°F or lower, stop the cooling process to prevent a risk of hypothermia.
Even if your dog seems to be recovering, a trip to the vet is still necessary. Heat stroke can lead to complications that aren't immediately visible, like kidney failure, heart abnormalities, and neurological effects.
Remember, it's essential to take immediate action but remain calm. Your dog will likely pick up on your stress, which could further exacerbate their condition.
It's important to note that while rubbing alcohol can be used in emergencies to help cool your dog, it's not the preferred method due to its potential risks. It can be toxic if your dog licks and ingests it. Therefore, it should only be used when no other options are available and in a controlled manner.
It's important to take your dog's temperature accurately, especially during hot weather or if you suspect heat stroke. A regular or digital thermometer is a useful tool for this. Thermal thermometers, designed to measure surface temperature, aren't accurate for this purpose as the rectal wall can be thick, and temperature readings might not reflect the core body temperature.
Here's how you can take your dog's temperature:
Use a regular or digital thermometer. Make sure it's cleaned and sanitized. If you're in the field and don't have any sanitizing materials, you can use your saliva as a makeshift lubricant.
Lift your dog's tail gently. This will give you better access to the rectum and will make the process easier for both of you.
Carefully insert the thermometer into the rectum. It should be inserted about an inch for small dogs and up to two inches for larger dogs. Always ensure your dog is calm and comfortable during this process.
Wait for the thermometer to register the temperature. This usually takes a minute for regular thermometers and just a few seconds for digital ones.
Carefully remove the thermometer and read the temperature.
Clean and sanitize the thermometer.
In cases of suspected heat stroke, take your dog's temperature every five minutes to monitor the situation closely.
If a dog's body temperature reaches 106°F, they're at a critical risk of organ failure. Recovery time from such a severe heat stroke largely depends on the extent of the organ damage, the overall health of the dog, and the promptness of the treatment provided.
In some cases, a dog may recover within a few weeks to a few months with immediate and aggressive treatment. However, this does not rule out the possibility of long-term effects. Severe organ damage may lead to chronic conditions that require lifelong management. For instance, kidney damage might result in chronic kidney disease, and neurological damage could lead to seizures or other behavioral changes.
It's crucial to note that not all dogs will fully recover from such a critical episode of heat stroke, especially if treatment is delayed or insufficient. Therefore, it's best to prevent heat stroke from occurring in the first place by keeping your dog cool and hydrated, never leaving them in a hot car, and being aware of the signs of heat stress.
After a heat stroke, your dog needs proper care to recover fully and prevent any long-term damage. Monitor your dog closely and make sure they are eating and drinking normally. Limit their physical activity and provide a cool, quiet place to rest.
In some cases, heat stroke can cause damage to a dog's organs, which may not be immediately apparent. Hence, a follow-up visit to the vet is crucial. They may recommend additional treatments or changes in diet to support recovery.
Heat stroke in dogs is a severe condition caused by an extreme rise in body temperature. Early signs include excessive panting and changes in behavior.
Dogs can only sweat minimally through their paw pads and primarily cool down through panting. They may also use vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) to help dissipate heat.
Certain dog breeds (like Bulldogs, Pugs, Shih Tzus) and dogs with specific health conditions (overweight, elderly, heart disease, respiratory disorders) are more susceptible to heat stroke and heat exhaustion.
Heat stress can rapidly escalate into heat exhaustion and eventually, potentially lethal heat stroke. Dogs exhibit signs of distress, intense panting, disorientation, vomiting, and seizures during these stages.
Common dog behaviors during heat stress include seeking shade, moving towards a water source, refusing to move, heavy panting, drooling, disorientation, vomiting, and, in severe cases, collapse or seizure.
Normal body temperature for dogs ranges from 101 to 102.5°F (38.3 to 39.2°C). Persistent elevated temperatures can indicate overheating. Temperatures reaching 106°F (41°C) or above can lead to organ damage.
If a dog's temperature is above 104°F (40°C), it's a medical emergency that needs immediate action. Moving the dog to a cooler area, providing cool water, and cooling the dog with water are advised. Forcing the dog to drink, using ice-cold water, or covering the dog with wet towels can cause further harm.
After initial cooling measures, a vet should examine the dog for any internal damage or complications that may not be immediately apparent.
The best way to protect a dog from heat stroke is prevention: providing plenty of fresh water, access to shade, avoiding strenuous exercise during hot periods, watching for signs of distress, and never, ever leaving a dog in a parked car.