"The classes of enzymes that have manganese cofactors are very broad and include such classes as oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases, lectins, and integrins. The reverse transcriptases of many retroviruses (though not lentiviruses such as HIV) contain manganese. The best known manganese-containing polypeptides may be arginase, the diphtheria toxin, and Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD).
Mn-SOD is the type of SOD present in eukaryotic mitochondria, and also in most bacteria (this fact is in keeping with the bacterial-origin theory of mitochondria). The Mn-SOD enzyme is probably one of the most ancient, for nearly all organisms living in the presence of oxygen use it to deal with the toxic effects of superoxide, formed from the 1-electron reduction of dioxygen." (Wikipedia)
Our readers offer information and opinions on Earth Clinic, not as a substitute for professional medical prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. Please consult with your physician, pharmacist, or health care provider before taking any home remedies or supplements or following any treatment suggested by anyone on this site. Only your health care provider, personal physician, or pharmacist can provide you with advice on what is safe and effective for your unique needs or diagnose your particular medical history.
[YEA] 05/12/2007: Denis from Luo Dong Township, Taiwan: "Some years ago I had a hair mineral analysis done. In general, the profile of minerals was on the low end of the normal range. However, copper was only about 85% of the minimum considered normal and manganese was only about 50%. I have severe food allergies and apparently the inflammation is interfering with normal mineral absorption. I have always been athletic and have more or less kept up a regular schedule of aerobic exercise for the last 38 years or so. One type of exercise I have had trouble doing is dips. Beginning in my late teens, whenever I started doing dips, I would get severe bursitis and have to quit. It was not until I was in my late forties that I had this hair mineral analysis done. I went to a local chemical shop and bought the purest form (high quality lab chemicals manufactured in Japan) of Manganese Chloride I could find. I began taking small quantities, only a few tiny crystals a day. Before long, for the first time in my life, I was able to do dips without getting bursitis. Now, caution is warranted. I knew I was low in manganese. However, it is a trace mineral, and too much can cause nervous system damage. After several years, I more or less forgot about it and my shoulder joints starting getting weak again. Two falls on two separate occasions resulted in dislocating both of my shoulders within the last year. Now, I am taking a little more, about 90 mg a day in order to strengthen my shoulder joints. I also have a very weak liver, and I suspect that manganese deficiency is a big part of this as well. If you want to try manganese chloride, first make sure you have a deficiency and then, take no more than 50 mg a day of the pure manganese, i.e. you must figure the weight of the choride and water molecules attached."
[YEA] 07/13/2009: Paisley from Salmon Arm, BC, Canada: "I have a ganglion on my knuckle. After whacking it with a book, which didn't get rid of it, but gave me very sore fingers for a week (!), I asked my doctor what I should do. Since the ganglion was actually interfering with normal hand function and flexibility, the doc said we had two options: surgery or manganese. I am taking 15 mg of manganese daily for six weeks and in three weeks, the ganglion has shrunk markedly. It is also no longer painful. So far, no negative side effects. If there are any, I'll post again. Don't know where the doc heard about this, but I think it's a great alternative to surgery (and book-whacking)."
EC: Wikipedia: "A ganglion cyst (also known as a bible bump) is a swelling that often appears on or around joints and tendons in the hand or foot."
11/26/2011: Zack from Victoria, Victoria Australia: "Hey In Australia I cannot find manganese sulfate, I'm just wondering what the difference between manganese sulfate, manganese chelate and manganese picolinate?
Can I supplement one of the other 2 insted of sulfate? Thanks"
11/27/2011: Dud from From The Woods Of, Wv, Usa replies: "Zack;
THE SAFETY OF MANGANESE AS A SUPPLEMENT:
A guy named Mark Purdy [from my memory, could be wrong name] from England, investigated mad cow disease, and other human nerve diseases, parkinsons, etc.. Be very carefull about taking a supplement with manganes in it. Read what Mark Purdy researched before taking manganese supplements.
He came to the conclusion that excess manganese from metal smelting operations, etc, absorbed from the air and water was a nervous system toxin, and a cause of many devastating human nervous system diseases, in man and beast.
He himself died from one of these degerative nerve diseases, in his prime of life.
He discovered that the British mad cow disease epidemic was being caused by giving the cows systemic de-worming drugs.
Later this disease was found in wild deer in the USA, & named "chronic wasting disease". Mark Purdy came to the USA and investigated that also.
In the USA, the home of the great whore-scientists, the gov't biologists tell you it is safe to go ahead and eat the diseased deer carcass, ... Just don't eat their brains!!!!
Just don't eat their brains!!!!
In humans the same disease is labeled "cruchfelds-jacob disease" [spelling?]
His life was threatened after he went public with his research. Perhaps he is now dead because "they" made good upon that threat. ?
His website is probably still up on the internet, containing this info. www.markpurdey.com/mark_purdey.htm
for example, a google search gives these links:
1. Mark Purdey - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In his later papers on BSE, Purdey suggested that a combination of high manganese and low copper in the soil, together with high environmental oxidizing ...
2. David R. Brown (neuroscientist) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Brown agreed with Purdey only in as far as the potential for manganese to be a risk factor, increasing the likelihood that BSE or another prion disease would ...
3. Organophosphates Implicated In Mad Cow Disease
Purdey says the manganese-tipped prions set off lethal chain reactions that neurologically burn through the animal. Phosmet organophosphate has been used...
4. Misinformation on 'Mad Cow' Disease Threatens America's Family...
When the "Mad Cow" epidemic hit England, not one cow in Purdy's herd ... Calf that's been fed on this milk powder is overloaded with manganese to a toxic level....
5. Mark Purdy/Insecticide triggered CJD - World Food & Health Watch...
Mar5, 2005 Purdey says manganese-tipped prions set off lethal chain reactions that neurologically burn through the animal....
6. Mark Purdey
Jan 1, 2011 3: Purdey M. Related Articles, Links The pathogenesis of Machado Joseph Disease: a high manganese/low magnesium initiated CAG...
7. The New Agriculture: Manganese: An Essential Nutrient and a Toxic...
May 3, 2011 My first exposure to the idea of Manganese as a potential toxin came when I read an interview with Mark Purdey in the December 2001 issue of ...
8. Mark Purdey & the pesticide connection
Villages will therefore be breathing in these various manganese substances and taking it straight into their brains via the nasal/olfactory route. "--Mark Purdey...
9. Chemtrails - An Updated Look at Aerosol Toxins
Feb 3, 2011 Purdy documented that a high dose of Manganese and the resultant low dose of Copper [see ArizonaSkywatch figures above] may be the ..."
11/27/2011: Maria from Gippsland, Australia replies: "Dud, Thanks for the info. My first reaction to your post was well we have some high manganese areas and some smelting but we don't have any mad cow disease! Plus not having the disease scrapie is the real explaination. We in Australia have been lead to believe that mad cow disease is caused by cows eating concentrated protein feed that contains sheep that had the disease scrapie. The carcasses were treated at a low heat not at the proper autoclave temperature which is required to kill it. Thus it was in effect transferred to cows and manifesting as BSE. As Australia does not have the disease scrapie this explained why we have no mad cow disease. All these years this sounded plausible, plus we never had to really think about it as it does not affect us. Mind you cows were never designed to eat animals! In 2001 we banned the feeding of annimal protein to ruminants with the exception of gelatine, tallow and milk.
Well on a bit more thinking we also don't have the warble fly thus we don't use the chemical (Phosmet) Mark talked about on our cattle. BUT we now have one registered product that contains it and is used for spraying cereal crops and lucerne for the control of blue oat mite, red-legged earth mite and lucerne flea. In Australia Phosmet is classified as a Schedule 6 compound (Poison) in the Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons so has been assessed as having a moderate potential to cause harm. We also use about 80 chemicals that are prohibited in the European Union.
I have been wondering why we have so many people sensitive to grains now. I know a few people who can only have organic grains especially with oats. Non organic oats run straight through them. Maybe it is one of the chemicals contributing to this along with the chemicals used to store the grains? Anyway thanks again Dud it has been most informative.
Whilst Ted recommends manganese sulphate, in one post (08/04/2011) http://earthclinic.com/CURES/hair_loss_questions.html - he says the following: Manganese is helpful for hair loss, but in supplement forms calcium, magnesium stearate and other additives prevent their absorption. I would not take manganese aspartate form, but the other forms are ok but I doubt it is effective as they keep adding these fillers.
So as you can't get the one you want try one that has no fillers if possible. If all else fails there is list of food and their manganese contents. http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=77#formindietarysupplements"
12/27/2011: Annu from Delhi, India: "Hi, I have somehow arranged manganese sulfate from chemistry lab. Can I take it internally a weight of 25 mg of manganese sulfate?"
[YEA] 08/14/2007: Jan from USA: "I need to ask Ted what dosage of manganese to take per day ?? and any dangers of overdose ?? since manganese is not well known I'm kind of nervous of overdose."Replies
Ted from Bangkok, Thailand replies: "Dear Jan:
Q: What is the dosage of manganese per day ?
A: It is often NOT taken per day.
Manganese overdose is relatively difficult if common sense principles are applied which is basically taken when it is needed only and most remedies are taken relatively infrequent, and yet, if it does work, it is taken on an "as needed" basis.
The common dose is 25 mg and taken only once for hair loss, but also the tablets, assuming it is taken in that form are quite commonly poorly absorbed if for some reason, it is taken on an empty stomach.
In event the next day hair loss reduction is noted, then it's working, the next step is to determine the exact dose, which usually means it is taken gradually and not everyday.
Some people who do take manganese noticed improvement in mood and reduction in depression, so they know how to monitor that one whenever those people are deficient. Optimum dose is not commonly pursued to avoid overdose, with the possible exception of suboptimal health.
The other issue is manganese should generally be taken in powdered, or the tablets are grounded or chewed so that the tablets which take that form with the addition of waxy substances such as manganese stearate(a wax) and calcium carboante, which prevents their absorption, also takes its toll on mineral bioavailability so the exact dose on as per label are always less if we consider how much of those gets absorbed when other waxes and fillers block them.
This has happened so often, that I lost count, this is perhaps my biggest concern with the supplements. And usually excesses or lack of it can be measured somewhat indirectly with the use of hair mineral analysis, which while it is not an exact science, is better than no information at all, especially in event of a heavy metal toxicity.
While dietary manganese level is 2 mg, most long term lack of it can result in negative levels of the body's stores for manganese, which is why in practice a single dose of 25 mg is taken just once a week, or in event of that manganese is confirmed to work, than it is taken on an "as needed basis" which can be like once a week until all conditions are gone, or in the event of a bad hair loss, it is taken for 4 days out of a week then it is stopped. It is stop because apparently the hair loss has been cured with that remedy.
The other problem about dietary manganese of 2 mg is that we are beating around the bush, how much DOES our body needs, and how much it is taken are two different things. The great divide is how well our body absorbed them which in practice, I suspect it is more closer to 10% of what is taken are absorbed, based on my optimistic projection. The older we get, the less we absorbed them so the body can end up being deficient across the board with the "essential minerals" while at the same time, being excessively loaded with free heavy metals that the body does not need.
For people with caution, natural sources of manganese are possible, but it must be understood that the level of manganese from natural sources varies, the biavailability can be limited, since manganese works best if taken alone on an empty stomach and it works synergistically with vitamin C and other problems such as destruction of mineral or mineral depletion due to processing of natural foods.
Rich manganese sources that is commonly used are soy milk, but nuts & seeds also have it. My own experience from eating nuts and seeds is the absorption to raise the manganese level is relatively very slow - like several months from those sources, while the other forms are relatively much more quicker, such as chelated amino acids of manganese, or chelated manganese. Sea salt rich in mineral is possibly another source, while the amount is quite small, its effect for a specific symptoms or sickness, won't resolve them quickly. It is therefore used when several mineral imbalances are noted that a sea salt will pull through or it is used as a supplements and the dose is fairly small which is 1/4 teaspoon of sea salt in one liter of water and can be taken often as people feel it is necessary. "
12/19/2008: Mary from Marietta, Ga replies: "I would like to know-how would you know if you have deficiency of Manganese. What are the symptoms? I have hair loss, but I don't want to create others issues. Thanks"
[WARNING!] 05/14/2007: Scott from Pen Argyl, PA: "If you are taking any other supplments, check those and their manganese content before starting on blackstrap molasses. It may save you quite a bit in the way of anxiety and medical bills."
[WARNING!] 01/04/2007: Scott from Pen Argyl, PA: "Be careful about Manganese -- it can cause symptoms of Parkinsons' Disease or Bells Palsy. 'I was taking a number of supplements that included manganese. The muscles on the right side of my face started to go slack and I was unable to use my mouth effectively. I thought I was having a stroke. Luckily I had a friend over who took me to the emergency room. I was diagnosed with Bells Palsy. It was supposed to go away within 1-2 months. It persisted for "7" months. I ran across something on the interment stating that overdosing on manganese can cause Parkinson's type symptoms. After checking the supplements I was taking I found that I was taking roughly 600 to 800 times the daily recommended allowance of this mineral. After I threw out these supplements my Bells started to clear up. If you have any similar type symptoms check what you're taking and eliminate those with manganese."Replies
07/29/2010: Jenny from New Westminster, Bc, Canada replies: "Hello, I just wanted to bring this to your attention. . . On the supplements page it says:
Manganese: causes Bells Palsy and Parkinson's Disease symptoms. I think you mean to say "helps with" or "prevents" as I think it is hard to believe that Manganese causes Bells Palsy and Parkinson's disease symptoms. I understand that you are explaining what these supplements do, however it is not consistent with how all the other supplements read. Just a suggestion."
EC: Actually, it is meant to read as such. You can see under "Manganese Warning" a post by "Scott from Pen Argyl, PA" in regard to this.
01/25/2012: Ronna from Philadelphia, Pa replies: "This is an interesting article from Discover magazine, regarding a possible treatment (manganese) for the deadly food poisoning toxin called Shiga Toxin.
05/29/2012: Diana33pr from New York, Usa replies: "The health benefits of manganese as a trace mineral for promoting bone health, and to treat medical conditions like osteoporosis, arthritis, PMS, diabetes, epilepsy and other medical conditions are vital. The important role it has to play as an enzyme activator, and as a component of anti-oxidant enzymes means that everyone must ensure they consume foods rich in this trace mineral or take supplements.
04/28/2013: Vince from Toronto, Ontario, Canada replies: "Make sure you are deficient before taking any mineral. Minerals can compete with each other for absorbtion. So taking one can displace another one. A hair mineral analysis may help. So would knowing the symptoms of deficiency. It is more complicated than it seems."
04/30/2013: Timh from Louisville, Ky, Usa replies: "In my location, the public water supply is drawn from a reservoir. In late autumn and early winter, the lake becomes black with decayed hardwood tree leaves. These leaves contain high levels of Manganese, thus creating, although temporarily, high Manganese levels in the public water. For folks who are deficient, this is a good thing, otherwise filter your water."