Table of Contents
- QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
- POPULAR REMEDIES
- Checking for Stabilizers in H2O2
- Colds and Flu
- Earth Clinic Report
- Antibiotics and H2O2
- Apple Cider Vinegar and H2O2
- Artificial Joints
- Back Pain
- Bad Breath
- Breathing Issues
- Canker Sores
- Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
- Cold Sores
- Colds and Flu
- Colds, Sinus Infections
- Cracked Skin
- Dechlorinating Water
- Dental Care
- Drug Store Peroxide
- Ear and Sinus Issues
- Food Grade Peroxide
- Food Grade Peroxide Tips
- Food Poisoning
- Foot Care
- Fountain of Youth
- General Feedback
- Genital Herpes
- Gum Sensitivity
- H2O2 and Antibiotics
- H2O2 and Crowns
- H2O2 and Medications
- H2O2 and Mercury Fillings
- H2O2 and Sperm
- H2O2 Side Effects
- Hair Lightener
- Heart Issues
- Hepatitis C
- High Blood Pressure
- Hot Tubs
- Hydrogen Peroxide Additives
- Hydrogen Peroxide and Vitamin E
- Hydrogen Peroxide Baths
- Hydrogen Peroxide in Humidifier
- Intravenous Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy
- Jock Itch
- Keratosis Pilaris
- Lung Issues
- Metal Reaction
- Milk Lasts Longer
- Mold and Mildew
- Multiple Cures
- Probiotics and H2O2
- Pulmonary Fibrosis
- Razor Bumps
- Reader Feedback
- Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Salt for Hydrogen Peroxide Burns
- Sickle Cell Disease
- Sinus Issues
- Skin Cancer
- Skin Issues
- Sore Throats
- Spider Bites
- Spider Veins
- Stained Teeth
- Stomach Ailments
- Strep Throat
- Sun Spots
- Tongue Ulcers
- Toothache and Tooth Abcess
- Yeast Infections
[YEA] 07/24/2010: Mary from Portland, Tn: "35% Food grade Hydrogen Peroxide is absolutely a miracle cure. . . . Over time. So many benefits! ! ! ! -and not the side effects that synthetic drugs come with. Take the opportunity to research ALL FG H2O information and see for yourself the..."
Our readers offer information and opinions on Earth Clinic, not as a substitute for professional medical prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. Please consult with your physician, pharmacist, or health care provider before taking any home remedies or supplements or following any treatment suggested by anyone on this site. Only your health care provider, personal physician, or pharmacist can provide you with advice on what is safe and effective for your unique needs or diagnose your particular medical history.
|Multiple Cures||58 YEAS|
|Colds and Flu||18 YEAS|
|Ear and Sinus Issues||12 YEAS|
|General Feedback||11 YEAS|
|Food Grade Peroxide||10 YEAS|
|Dental Care||5 YEAS|
|Bad Breath||5 YEAS|
07/22/2010: Rob from Manhattan, New York: "Hydrogen Peroxide Therapy...a big NAY!
You all should be aware that many doctors advise strongly against ingesting Hydrogen Peroxide. . . Dr. Weil for one...
....although he is referring to ingesting 35% which no one is suggesting here. . But still advises against ingesting any form of it."Replies
07/22/2010: Liz from Rehoboth Beach, Delaware replies: "I use h2o2 daily to rinse my mouth with. . . I do note that this comment from Dr. Weil is talking about 35% not the 3% I use. . . Is there a big difference and is he right? thanks.
[YEA] 07/24/2010: Mary from Portland, Tn replies: "35% Food grade Hydrogen Peroxide is absolutely a miracle cure. . . . Over time. So many benefits! ! ! ! -and not the side effects that synthetic drugs come with. Take the opportunity to research ALL FG H2O information and see for yourself the results that arise after using. Big Pharma cannot patent H2O therefore it does not add to their bottom line as do all the synthetic "garbage" they produce, thus the discredit manuevers they have successfully employed to sabotague FG H2O. Don't listen to someone else, find your own information to make your OWN decision. All The Best!"
04/28/2010: Mike K from Green Bay, Wisconsin: "Study reveals H202 as very powerful anti-oxidant and glucose stabilizer.
This is the pdf link to the study.
04/29/2010: Francisca from Michelbach-le-bas, Alsace, France replies: "I read here quite often that people use hydrogen peroxide internally, but my husband who is a chemist says that I shouldn't use it as it is a dangerous chemical...... I don't know what to think anymore.... is it or isn't it?"
04/30/2010: Alain from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada replies: "Answer to Francisca from Michelbach-le-bas, Alsace, France
It's all a matter of concentration. The maximum recommended concentration of H2O2 for internal use is 0.5%. But even 1/10 of it is still beneficial. There are other ways also than internal.
This page http://curezone.com/forums/fm.asp?i=1586256#i has a lot of links to H2O2 articles.
It does not hurt to read about H2O2, and people may learn a few things.
04/30/2010: Mike K. from Green Bay, Wi replies: "It is produced by the body naturally. Orange juice and honey actually metabolize into H202. In the US, it is common to treat water for consumption with Chlorine, which can be very dangerous in various strengths and forms. Still, it is used in treating drinking water and millions consume it every day.
I would say an excess of anything is not good. I am using 3 drops of 35% in 8 oz of water to keep my glucose level stable.
In Feb of 09, my glucose levels were at and above 500. I fasted and flushed and was still unable to get it below 300, where it remained... until after 3 doses as measured above. Coupled with my oral medications, my glucose levels dropped to the low normal range, my A1c was 6.8 and my triglyceride level was in the low category. The only thing I still had to work on was increasing my HDL and lowering my LDL, but my overall cholesterol was below 200.
The study confirms my actual results with h202. Until I spotted that, I had no idea HOW it was functioning to do what it was doing, only that it did. Now I know.
I watched my father die of complications of diabetes, and for me, it was an easy decision to go outside the box regarding my glucose control efforts. Good luck and best regards."
[QUESTION] 03/20/2010: Sam from Edmonton, Alberta: "H2O2 dosing Schedule?
I can't seem to find the dosing schedule for the H2O2. I want to put my father on it because his natural doctor has told him that he is living on his own toxic waste. Then my father asked me a funny question that I'll share with ya'll - He said "If this peroxide stuff cleans up all my toxic waste, am I going to starve to death?" I thought that was pretty funny! Anyway, I can't find the directions on how much he should take. Can somebody let me know how to use the diluted method, the 3%.
03/23/2010: Alain from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada replies: "Answer to Sam from Edmonton: 3% peroxide is for external use. For internal use it should be 0.5% or below.
The ways to use H2O2 are:
1-External uses: Baths and body sprays
Alkalizing foot baths
Alkalizing shower/spray from http://curezone.com/forums/am.asp?i=1009888
2-Bill Munro H2o2 inhalation method
3-Internal orally method (see below)
For external use it does not have to be food grade.
Moreless alkalizing baths and shower protocols use regular 3% h2o2.
For internal use, all articles I read do not recommend the use of pharma grade. It has to be diluted Food grade. Bill Munro use phama 3% in his inhalation method. However, I would prefer to use a 3% solution made with food grade H2O2 if it is available.
For dosages please read the Dosage section.
Where to buy? It depends on the country. See the Where to buy section below.
Here's the recommendation from Earthclinic's Ted from http://www.earthclinic.com/Remedies/hydrogen_peroxide.html:
--Beginning of quote--
In the alternative health field, the maximum is actually 0.5% concentration. Actually and optimum H2O2 concentration was first determined in 1950s by Dr. Reginald Holman by implanting Walker 256 adenocarcinoma tumours. The drinking water for the rat used H2O2 optimum concentration needed to kill the tumors were about 0.45 percent.
Tumors completely disappeared in 15 to 60 days in rats. Of course a better way is to add 1/4 teaspoon of baking soda in the glass of 0.45% concentration of H2O2. This can be extended to treatment of almost any kinds of conditions, from virus, bacteria, microbial infections, pneumonia, tuberculosis, flu, etc. My own experience of using just baking soda (also increases the body's oxygen) and ascorbate vitamin C about three weeks for a small tumor to go into remission.
A more effective I think in the future of peroxide therapy is to add baking soda to the 0.45% concentration to normal drinking water since baking soda is alkaline and increases oxygen, while the peroxide furthers this natural increase.
--End of quote--
Hydrogen Peroxide - Curse or Cure? by Dr. David G. Williams
The article has dosages.
EC: Wow, thanks Alain, that's a lot of research!
Here's Earth Clinic's section on where to buy food grade H202 as it was not listed above:
02/16/2011: Mesem from Toulon, France replies: "This Hydrogen Peroxide thing has got me really confused. What is the shelf life of this product without stabilisers? I am told less than a month. If this is so you need to obtain it freshly made and in small quantities from a local lab. With the mail as slow as it is here...! Impossible to have. I have not been feeling great and tried Bill Munroe's inhalation technique. I can't say it did anything for me and absolutely no sensation in the mouth so I'm wondering if it is out of date even with a stabiliser( Coopers). Maybe I should set up a lab! Lugol's solution also is active for almost exactly one month so no use stocking up on that for the next nuclear accident! "
02/02/2010: Jeanette from Manchester, Tn: "I have a question about taking H202 orally. I read several books and all say to take on an empty stomach. Does that mean you can't have a morning cup of coffee? I want my husband to get the benefits also but he smokes, should he wait until he quits? What's best to mix it with other than water, to hide the taste. I know lemon and carrot juice are not good!
Also about the bathing in it. I have city water, so can I use it to bath with or do I have to use distilled water for every application?"
12/18/2009: Sai from Chennai, Tn: "Hi,
This is a question that goes out to anyone who is knowledgeable enough to understand biochemistry and stuff like that (I don't know much in this field). I was reading through the hydrogen peroxide page on EC when I found a link to books on Amazon about H2o2.
I found the following review on a book about H2o2. Usually I know there are both kinds of reviews about anything (and blokes from pharma companies giving misinformation or "debunking" natural cures.) but this reviewer seemed to be giving out "facts" that can possibly be checked.
The review is here:
Can somebody please give me more information after reading his review (is he really talking sense?), there seem to be people there agreeing with him and suddenly my plans to try H2o2 to get rid of chronic fatigue/candida are no longer looking like plans :("
12/18/2009: Ted from Bangkok, Thailand replies: "Dear Sai, ok I have a background in Biochemistry, but I won't bore you to tears about this. Because I have limited time, here are a few counterpoints to that reviewer on Amazon...
"Ozone and Hydrogen peroxide are not oxygen. One molecule of sodium changes normal Glutamic acid to a toxic poison known as msg."
Taking hydrogen peroxide actually increases the blood oxygen level significantly. This you can go to a hospital to get. Some of my clients have done this on many occasions. The hydrogen peroxide reacts with an organic molecules ore bacteria and breaks down into water and a singlet oxygen. Many of this will get you oxygen.
"In the body, hydrogen peroxide is only produced within the mitochondria, and at specific points where the immune system activates hydrogen peroxide to kill pathogens"
Hydrogen peroxide is more likely produced by the white blood cells used to ingest bacteria and viruses. Hence it is specific to immune systems.
"Flood your body with ozone and peroxide? Not a good idea. It is just a basic scientific fact that reactive oxygen species are one of the main causes of aging and death."
Edgar Cayce's wife, in his reading for her to go to the mountains, where it's ozone rich. It's used to cure tuberculosis. I used ozone directly to cure tuberculosis. It's a good idea if you are infected to use ozone to kill TB before it kills you. What are you going tell your father, let him die from TB because it's antibiotic resistance won't save him?
"It is just a basic scientific fact that reactive oxygen species are one of the main causes of aging and death. Don't believe Ed Mccabe's crap about how peroxide isn't an ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species)"
The father of free radical theory of aging is based on Dr. Denham Harman. The theory that is accepted worldwide is based on the Fenton Reaction, which is free radical Iron, that creates Hydroxyl Free radicals, called -OH, which is the most reactive of the free radicals that explains the theory of aging. It's in your iron frying pan when you have enough of that, you have both heavy metals and free metal iron. The body in general uses hydrogen peroxide to kill of the bugs anyway, but when it is overwhelmed there is no way that our immune system can reproduce as fast as the viruses. It takes on average about 2 hours to get almost saturation in the body. Hence my remedies, whether aspirin. hydrogen peroxide or lysine I used to cure in most of the people is the hourly dose. Hydrogen peroxide on the other hand stays in your body on the average of 50 minutes. Hence hydrogen peroxide if is needed to treat the flu, is taken at intervals of 25 minutes, or 1/2 of the 50 minutes before the viruses have a chance to overwhelm our immune systems.
"One of the most BASIC methods of evaluating a person's health status is the free hydrogen peroxide levels in their blood."
The truth is one of the basic methods of evaluation a health status is the person's low levels of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria grows in low oxygen environments.
"Flooding your body with hydrogen peroxide and ozone is the equivalent of releasing a nuclear bomb into your system. If it wasn't, you would be able to drink more than a couple drops without dying."
Flooding your body with hydrogen peroxide and ozone is equivalent of the patriot missles shooting down at the anaerobic bacteria which kills you. The oxygen is needed by the healthy cells whenever hydrogen peroxide is degraded in presence of pathogenic bacteria.
"I'm really getting sick of the pseudo-scientists and fake naturopaths promoting this idiocy."
I am really getting sick of someone who thinks he's not an idiot when he actually IS.
I think I don't have to go any further, because if you begin with a statement that doesn't support itself, there's no use talking any further. There's a lack of credibility here.
01/03/2010: Sai from Chennai, Tn replies: "Dear Ted,
Thank you so much for that reply. You made my head feel lighter since it does look like I have H2O2 still there on my side :) Your replies to so many things/questions on this site are highly appreciated.
PS: I didn't reply earlier because I didn't know where to look for my question on the site."
01/22/2010: Sachin from Delhi, India replies: "Hello Sai and all,
My name is Sachin. I am a member of this site. Do you have any idea that from where can one purchase Food Grade Oxygen in India... particularly so in Delhi?
One more thing that bothers me is the release of oxygen atoms (not molecules) by the Hydrogen peroxide. The oxygen atoms are the free radicals that are a highly reactive species and are resposible for high and fast oxidation. I dont buy the idea that oxygen atoms are harmful only to anaerobic organisms. Its a checical reaction, oxygen atoms can chemically react with any chemical (even from a aerobic organism) that can distort the checmical structure of the molecule of the aerobic organism... The change of molecular structure (by reacting with O atom) of a aerobic substance means the O atom has effectively given harm to the aerobic bacteria or aerobic tissue of the human body... Though I am not against the effectiveness of oxygen in treating diseases, I suspect adverse affects of oxygen free radicals on our living tissues in our bodies..
An alternative method can be using water with higher levels of dissloved oxygen. These will be oxygen MOLECULES and not atoms i.e. not free radicals.. may be one can obtain this by use of Hydrogen Peroxide as well. O atoms are highly reactive, they are very unstable also. There are O atoms produced in a solution of h2O2 and water mixture. it may happen that after keeping the solution at rest for sometime, the O atoms being unstable may combine with each other in the solution to form O2 molecules. Thus creating dissolved oxygen in water. To explain chemically:-
H2O2 ----> H2O O (highly reactive) (in water)
O O ----> O2
Also Sai, please let me know if you know about any vendors for Food Grade H2O2 or Oxygenated water in Delhi or in India.
Many Thanks in advance!"
[SIDE EFFECTS] 12/02/2009: Lyndi from Durban, South Africa: "Hi I have recently started taking H2O2 orally.. I have been really nauseous and would like to know what the possible cause of this could be, I have breast implants and am concerned that it could be causing a reaction... any comments or suggestions on where I can find out more about this?"Replies
12/02/2009: Alain from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada replies: "Answer to Lyndi about the internal use of H2O2.
When you take H2O2 internally, you must take your solution on empty stomach. You may start also with a solution even more diluted than the one you are actually using. Try the very diluted ways as suggested by Ted at EC.
To know more about various H2O2 protocols here are a few links:
Hydrogen Peroxide Inhalation Method Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aT1_Rkl0B1M
Another Video http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X9DhBPegqqY on the use of peroxide.
Other Articles Some information are repetitive.
You may perhaps get some answers there?
I hope these help.
11/18/2009: Bill from San Fernando, Philippines: "Hydrogen Peroxide -- Understand Percentage by Volume
Hi everyone...Can someone who is a chemist or knowledgeable please confirm something for me?..In the Philippines where I live, HP is only sold in 10% by Volume and 20% by Volume amounts. I remember reading somewhere(I think!!) that 10% by Volume represents a 3% solution of HP, and that 20% by volume of HP represents a 6% solution of HP.
Can someone who is a chemist please confirm whether I'm right or wrong about this ?
Much thanks in advance..."
[QUESTION] 11/16/2009: Anthony from Sydney, N.s.w., Australia: "H2O2 and Fasting
Can anyone help?...I have started the h2o2 regimen and am about to start a 14 day fast. Should I discontinue the h2o2 until my fast is completed or continue in conjunction? ....Anthony"
[QUESTION] 11/11/2009: Ron from Big Lake, Mn 55309 Usa: "Any reason I can't use H202 in a steam inhaler?
[QUESTION] 11/10/2009: Joe from Lake Worth, Florida: "How do we convert 35% Food Grade Hyrogen Peroxide to the 3% suggested for internal drop usage? I would like mix 1oz. of the 35% but I'm not sure how much water to add to make it 3%.
Earth Clinic: How do we track when the answer is given from the site?"
EC: Click on your link title on the Latest Posts page to find out where your question has been posted. Unless the question is addressed to Ted, it is posted in the main section of a page and not in Ted's Latest Questions and Answers. Hope that makes sense! Your post is under "General Feedback" in the hydrogen peroxide section. http://www.earthclinic.com/Remedies/hydrogen_peroxide.html
11/03/2009: Alexander M from Auckland, New Zealand: "These stories seem too amazing to be true! I've been doing a few days worth of research and have decided I will try the inhalation method using 0.5% (Food Grade) Hydrogen Peroxide and supplementing with the baking powder in water drink to adjust bodies internal pH (monitoring using litimus paper).
My wife and I will be doing this (for a month or so)as a general health pick-me-up experiment. Our adult daughter is considering trying this to see what effect it will have on her hepatitis rather than the dangerous chemical path of Interferon etc.
While researching this topic I found this very informative paper by a Professor in Ireland it has many references. Of course any individual should fully research his condition before deciding to use any of these methods and inhilation is potentially dangerous with some lung illnesses and to smokers.
09/29/2009: Artie from Fordville, Nd: "I have been reading about the benefits and side effects of food grade hydrogen peroxide. What can you tell me about this. Recommended or not, and where would a person find it. Thanks"
EC: Well, you can start with the food grade H202 posts here: http://www.earthclinic.com/Remedies/hydrogen_peroxide5.html#FGP
and then read all the various ailments in the same section that have used food grade:
Our Where to Buy Food Grade Peroxide page is here: http://www.earthclinic.com/Remedies/hydrogen_peroxide_where_to_buy.html
[QUESTION] 09/06/2009: Jaques from Brighton, England: "i just saw a video by Dr James Hutton on the Conscious Media Network, in it he said that drinking h202 could not get into the bloodstream and to cure various ailments, it would need to be injected. There are also other people who have said that it can over time burn your stomach and cause ulcers - i was wondering if this is the case if it could burn your aesophagus and lungs - i notice when inhalling it it immediately feels like its burning the back of my throat, but it did get rid of a nasty virus i had last yr...........has anyone any thoughts on what Dr Hutton said...."Replies
09/07/2009: Stan from Perth, Western Australia replies: "Jaques, how do other vitamins and supplements we are drinking get in to the Blood stream maybe we ask the good Doctor"
09/08/2009: Jaques from Brighton, England replies: "Stan i think you are right.................and Franz from Bankok, I have been wondering about mixing acv with h202 as well - as i take acv for GERD which helps but wanted to take h202, but they are supposed to both be taken on empty stomach, given i only eat morning and evening, should be too hard, but its take one, wait how long before taking the other then wait............before eating breakfast..............would be grateful if there is someone on here who does this who could enlighten us......."
09/08/2009: Tricia from Ireland replies: "My experience of using acv and peroxide was external not internal and the result tells me to use the two separately with a couple of hours between. I had been using Teds remedy for rosacea sucessfully. I was so used to doing it I didn;t even think twice about measuring - I could have done it with my eyes closed (or so I thought). I woke up one weekend after having a late meal I was suffering heartburn so I was going to take the acv and baking soda. Somehow I got mixed up and put the acv and peoxide together and slathered it on my face. I probobly would have paid a fortune for the resulting chemical peel if I had gone to a salon. My face stayed burned and stayed red for about 8 hours. I spent most of my day making excuses for my own stupidity (I admit I lied through my teeth about allergic reactions). I will say that the next day my skin looked and felt great.
This WAS neat acv and peroxide. Maybe adding water to it would make it different but after my day when my face could have landed a 747 in the back yard i would be wary of taking the two together"
09/09/2009: Jaques from Brighton, England replies: "Looks like someone got a chemical peel for their face - lol!
Anyway for those who were asking about mixing h202 and acv, and also the affectiveness of drinking h202, i had this reply to my questions, from Ian Weir of an online shop in the UK who sell both products plus much more..............
"H2O2 certainly cannot be absorbed into the blood stream as efficiently through the gut. Our bodies are designed to take oxygen in through the lungs, and injection into the blood is the most efficient way. However the idea behind taking H2O2 into the gut is not necessarily to increase oxygen levels in your blood. You would be better off using Hyper Barric Oxygen Therapy for this. The method of action of the H2O2 in the gut is the scavenging action of the free oxygen acting as a detox.
I cannot recommend that you mix it with ACV or bicarb as i do not know whether this will cause frothing in the stomach and therefore nausea."
[QUESTION] 09/03/2009: Tracy from Charlotte, Nc, Usa: "Pre-diluted Hydrogen Peroxide: I found 3% hydrogen peroxide in the first aid section of my local health food store which has purified water listed as the only additive...no stabilizers are mentioned and there is no poison symbol. The instructions say not to ingest, but it does promote swishing w/an equal amount of water for mouth sores. If this type of product is not safe to ingest with water, then is there a pre-diluted to 3% food grade hp available? I'm a bit nervous about the volatility of the 35% solution."
06/04/2009: Jerry from Mt Dora, Fl: "Article from:
Hydrogen peroxide marshals immune system (w/Video)
June 3rd, 2009
When you were a kid your mom poured it on your scraped finger to stave off infection. When you got older you might have even used it to bleach your hair. Now there's another possible function for this over-the-counter colorless liquid: your body might be using hydrogen peroxide as an envoy that marshals troops of healing cells to wounded tissue.
In the zebrafish tail fin imaged here, a small wound is inflicted at the tip of the fin. Red represents high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, and blue represents low concentrations. The chemical burst far exceeds the single cell diameter and reaches well into the surrounding tissue. Credit: Philipp Niethammer
Using the zebrafish as an animal model, researchers in the lab of Harvard Medical School professor of systems biology Timothy Mitchison and Dana Farber Cancer Institute professor Thomas Look have discovered that when the tail fins of these creatures are injured, a burst of hydrogen peroxide is released from the wound and into the surrounding tissue. Teams of rescue-working white blood cells respond to this chemical herald, crawl to the site of damage, and get to work.
"We've known for quite some time that when the body is wounded, white blood cells show up, and it's really a spectacular piece of biology because these cells detect the wound at some distance," says Mitchison. "But we haven't known what they're responding to. We do know something about what summons white blood cells to areas that are chronically inflamed, but in the case of an isolated physical wound, we haven't really known what the signal is."
These findings are reported in the June 4 issue of the journal Nature.
Philipp Niethammer, a postdoc in Mitchison's lab, and Clemmens Grabber, a postdoc in Look's lab, initiated this research project with no interest in wound healing. Rather, they were studying a groups of molecules called reactive oxygen species, or ROS. These small oxygen-derived molecules, of which hydrogen peroxide is one, have the potential to be both helpful and hurtful. Niethammer and Grabber were simply curious to find ways to detect ROS molecules in an organism.
To do this, they took a gene engineered to change color in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and inserted it into zebrafish embryos. Once the embryos entered the larvae stage after a few days, this synthetic gene spread throughout the entire body, essentially "wiring" the fish so that any discreet location in which hydrogen peroxide appears would glow.
But how do you coax the fish to produce a reactive chemical like hydrogen peroxide in the first place?
Since white blood cells have long been known to produce hydrogen peroxide, one obvious way to initiate chemical production would be to inflict a small wound onto the fish, and then, using microscopy, observe patterns of this chemical as white blood cells gathered around the wound. But much to the researchers surprise, they found that hydrogen peroxide immediately appeared at the wound site, prior to the arrival of any white blood cell, and quickly disseminated into neighboring tissue.
They repeated the experiment, this time in zebrafish where they'd disabled a protein that was previously discovered to produce hydrogen peroxide in the human thyroid gland. Not only did hydrogen peroxide not appear at the wound site, but white blood cells failed to respond to the injury.
"This was our real eureka! moment," says Niethammer. "We weren't too surprised that we could block hydrogen peroxide production through this technique, but what we didn't expect at all was that white blood cells wouldn't respond. This proved that the white blood cells needed hydrogen peroxide to sense the wound, and move towards it."
Of course, zebrafish are not people, and while our genomes share many similarities with these tiny fish, it isn't yet clear that natural selection has conserved this process throughout the evolutionary family tree. Still, these findings offer something of a conceptual shift in how to view human conditions where hydrogen peroxide plays a role.
"When we look at how hydrogen peroxide works in people, this really starts getting intriguing," says Mitchison.
In the human body, hydrogen peroxide is produced primarily in three places: lung, gut, and thyroid gland. Because hydrogen peroxide, and the proteins responsible for producing other ROS molecules, are especially present in lung and gut, the researchers hypothesize that human diseases relevant to these findings would include any in the lung and gut that involve disproportionate levels of white blood cells, like asthma, chronic pulmonary obstruction, and some inflammatory gut diseases.
"Our lungs are supposed to be sterile; our guts are anything but," says Mitchison. "It's very logical that both those tissues produce hydrogen peroxide all the time. Perhaps in conditions like asthma, the lung epithelia is producing too much hydrogen peroxide because it's chronically irritated, which, if our findings translate to humans, would explain inappropriate levels of white blood cells. This is certainly a question worth pursuing."
Mitchison is currently laying the groundwork for investigating this hypothesis.
More information: Nature, June 3, 2009; 459 (7247) "A tissue-scale gradient of hydrogen peroxide mediates rapid wound detection in zebrafish"; Philipp Niethammer, Clemens Grabher, A. Thomas Look, Timothy J. Mitchison
Source: Harvard Medical School (news : web)"